Share via Whatsapp



  1. Name two causes of blossom end rot in tomatoes. 1mk
  2. Name two diseases of cabbages. 1mk
  3. Give three reasons for ridging in potato production. 1 ½ mks
  4. List four systems of farming. 2mks
  5. What is hybrid vigour as used in breeding? ½ mk
  6. Give four functions of vitamin A in the body of an animal. 2mks
  7. Give two maintenance practices carried out as a claw hammer. 1mk
  8. Give four control measures of liver flukes in livestock production. 2mks
  9. State three factors that would affect digestibility in livestock 1 ½ mks
  10. State the uses of each of the following tools and equipment. 2mks
    1. Garden trowel
    2. Elastrator
    3. Plumb bob
    4. Strip cup
  11. Name four features of an ideal cereal store. 2mks
  12. Give four reasons for rearing indigenous cattle in marginal areas of Kenya. 2mks
  13. State two forms in which nitrogen is taken by plants. 1mk
  14. Outline four types of information contained in a breeding record. 2mks
  15. Name two methods of farming considered to be out dated. 1mk
  16. State three reasons why jersey breed of cattle is better suited for drier areas of Kenya than the Friesian. 1 ½ mks
  17. How long is the Oestrus cycle? ½ mk
  18. State four factors that determine the harvesting stage in a crop. 2mks
  19. State Three causes of seed dormancy. 1 ½ mks
  20. Give four reasons why farmers are advised to raise tea in polythene sleeves. 2mks
  21. State four effects of protein deficiency in animals. 2mks
  22. Give two functions of the reticulum in the digestion of food in cattle. 1mk
  23. Give the meaning of the following terminology as used in livestock production. 1mk
    1. Pullet
    2. Gilt
  24. A dairy cow is noticed to be showing signs of heat at 6. 00a.m what time should it be inseminated. 1mk
  25. State THREE ways by which biological agents can enhanced the process of soil formation. 1 ½ mks
  26. State four advantages of drip irrigation 2mks
  27. State three advantages of applying lime as a measure of improving soil condition. 1 ½ mks



  1. The illustration below shows a physical feature observed in a given cattle breed study the diagram and answer question that follow.
    1. Name any four exotic breeds with the above feature. 4mks
    2. Describe two other ideal characteristics of the above breeds of cattle. 2mks
  2. A farmer intends to prepare 600kg of feed containing 20% DCP using feedstuffs Q which contains 18% DCP and N which contains 40%DCP. Using the Pearson’s square method, calculate how much of Q and N will be required . 5mks
  3. Below are illustrations of planting materials. Study them and answer questions that follow.
    1. Identify them 2mks
    2. Name the preparation X should be subjected to in readiness our planting. 1mk
    3. State two precautions taken when harvesting Y. 2mks
  4. The diagram below illustrates on internal parasite of livestock.
    1. Identify the parasite. 1mk
    2. Name two hosts of the parasites. 2mks
    3. Name two methods of controlling the parasite. 2mks



    1. Discuss importance of irrigation in farming. 10mks
    2. State and explain five factors that influence spacing of crops. 10mks
    1. Explain six factors considered when selecting a breeding stock. 12mks
    2. Describe the functions of four parts of the female reproductive system in poultry. 8mks
    1. Explain the role of livestock industry in Kenya’s economy. 10mks
    2. Describe the life cycle of a three host tick. 10mks


  1. Causes of blossom end-rot in tomatoes
    - Irregular watering
    - Excess nitrogen
    - Lack of calcium    2 x ½ = 1mk
  2. diseases of cabbages
    - Black roft
    - Damping off
    - Downy mildew  2 x  ½  = 1mk
  3. Reasons for rdging in potato production
    - Facilitate easy harvesting
    - For tuber expansion
    - Water/soil conservation.  3 x ½ = 1 ½ mk
  4. Farming systems
    - Extensive farming
    - Intensive farming
    - Large scale farming
    - Small –scale farming   4 x ½ = 2mks
  5. HYBRID vaguer
    - Condition where off spring acquires more superior characteristics than either of the parents.           ½ mks
  6. Functions of vitamin A in the body of the animal
    - Bone formation
    - Prevention of diseases
    - Required for proper growth/improves vigour
    - Improve vision
    - Increases resistance to diseases.   4x1/2 = 2mks
  7. Maintenance practices on a claw hammer
    - Replace broken handles
    - Fix- the head firmly
    - Should be stored properly
    - Apply oil on head to prevent rusting
    - Use right size of head for desired work.   2 x ½ = 1mk
  8. Control measures of live flukes
    -treat with antihelminthics
    - Avoid grazing in swampy areas
    -drain swamps
    -kills snails using molluscides e.g copper III sulphate. 4 x ½ = 2mks
  9. Factors that would affect digestibility of animal feeds
    - Chemical composition of the feeds
    - The form in which the feed is offered to the animal
    - Animal species
    - The ratio of energy to protein in the feed
    - Amount of food already in the digestive tract . 3x ½   1 ½ mk
  10. use of the following tools and equipment’s. 2mks
    1. garden trowel – lifting seedlings during transplanting
    2. elastrator –expanding rubber rings for castration, docking dehorning etc.
    3. plumb bob- for checking weather a tall wall is vertical.
    4. strip cup- checking / testing mastitis.
  11. Features of ideal cereal store
    - Raised abt 50cm above the ground
    - Well ventilated
    - Vermin-proof / has metal deflectors on poles
    - Ease to load and off load
    - Secure
    - Damp- proof    4 x ½ = 2mks
  12. Reasons for rearing indigenous cattle in marginal areas of Kenya
    - Can survive on little food/scanty vegetation
    - Are good foragers
    - Are resistant to diseases
    - Can resist high temperatures
    - Can survive with little water
    - Can walk over long distances in search of food and water without lowering production.  4 x ½ = 2mks
  13. Forms in which N is taken by plants
    - Nitrate ions (NO3)
    - Ammonium ions (NH4)   2 x ½ = 1mk
  14. Types of information contained in a breeding record:
    - Date of service
    - Bull/sire number
    - Date of parturition
    - Breed type     4 x ½ = 2mks
  15. Methods of farming considered to be out dated. 1mk
    - Shifting cultivation
    - Nomadic pastoralism
  16. Reasons why the Jersey breed of cattle is better suited for dried areas than the Friesian:
    - It’s an excellent grazer in poor pastures.
    - Requires/can survive on less feed
    - More tolerant to heat.    3x ½  1½mk
  17. Length of estrus cycle in cattle 21 days   ½mk
  18. Factors determining harvesting stage of a crop
    - Use or purpose of the crop
    - Moisture content of the crop especially cereals
    - Degree of ripeness in fruits crops
    - Taste and preference of the consumer
    - Quality of the product
    - Weather condition.  4 x ½ 2mks
  19. Causes of seed dormancy:
    - Thick/hard seed coat
    - Immature embryo
    - Presence of germination inhibitors
    - Extreme temperatures during seed maturity.  3 x ½ = 1½mks
  20. Reasons why farmers are advice to raise tea in polythene sleeves:
    - For easy transplanting
    - Root system is not disturbed during transplanting.
    - Can be carried over a long distance
    - Seedlings can easily be stored before transplanting.  4 x ½ = 2mks
  21. Effects of protein deficiency in animals 4½mk
    - Retarded growth
    - Wearing – out of body tissues
    - Low production level
    - Poor resistance to diseases,
  22. Functions of the reticulum in the digestion. 2 x ½ = 1mk
    - Separating/sieving bigger/coarse food particles from fine ones
    - Sieving/trapping and region Taking food back to the mouth for further chewing
    - Retraining foreign and indigestible food materials.
  23. Meaning of terminologies 2 x ½ = 1mk
    Pullet – a young female bird from eight weeks to the point of laying.
    Gilt- a young female pig that has not given birth.
  24. Right time for insemination 1mk
    - Anytime between 12 noon and mid-night.
  25. Ways in which biological agents cause soil formation 1½mk
    - large animals trample on the rocks disintegrating them into small particles
    - micro-organisms produce acid which collects the rocks.
    - some burrowing animals make tunnels in the rocks disintegrating them
    - roots of trees grow through rocks causing them to break into small particles.
  26. Advantages of drip irrigation 4x ½ -= 2mks
    - It requires little water
    - Very little labour is required after installation
    - Does not cause soil version
    - It is cheap to install.
  27. Advantage of applying lime   4 x ½ = 2mks
    - it adds calcium to the soil
    - It raises the soil PH
    - It improves the soil structure


    1. Exotic breeds with the above features the above feature
      - Aberdeen Angus
      - Galloway
      - Hereford
      - Charolaise
      - Beef shorthorns.   4 x 1 = 4mk
    2.  Other physical characteristics of the above breeds.  2x1= 2mks
      - deep well fleshed bodies
      - Good foragers
      - Have short legs to support their heavy bodies.
      - Heavily fleshed hind quarters.
    Amount of Q = 20  x 600KG  = 545.45KG     1mk
    Amount of N    2   x 600kg = 54.54kg   1mk
    1. X – Irish potato tuber/sett   1mk
      Y – sugar cane cutting / sett     1mk
    2. chitting    1mk
    3. Precautions taken when harvesting Y
      - Burn sugar cane fields to chase away shakes
      - deliver the cane within 24hrs to maintain quality.  2 x 1 = 2mks
    1. Tapeworm   1mk
    2.  pig, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys.  2x1 = 2mks
    3. - proper cocking of meat
      - proper meat inspection
      - use latrines by farm work
      - rotational graze
      - drenching with anthelminthic (any 2 = 1mk each = 2mks

SECTION C:  40mks

    1. Importance of irrigation in farming
      - To regulate soil temperature/ crop temperature
      - To soften the soil
      - To remove toxic substances in the soil
      - Regulate soil pH
      - to supplement rainfall in dry spells
      - continue supply of crop throughout the year   5x2 = 10mks
    2. Factors influencing spacing of crops:
      - purpose of the crop close, spacing for maize for silage wider spacing for maize for grains.
      - The soil moisture-close spacing in heavy rainfall areas/where soil has a high mic
      - Growth habit – wide spacing for wide spreading crops.
      - Control of pests and diseases – no set of groundnuts controlled by close spacing
      - Soil fertility – close spacing in fertile soils.
      - Machinery to be used – wide spacing where machinery is to be used.  5 x 2 = 10mks
    1. Factors considered when selecting the breeding stock:
      • Age- select young animals-those that have not parturated for more than three times. This because they have a longer lifespan
        - old animals are low producers.
        - production and breeding efficiency declines with age
      • level of production- select high producers/performers.
      • Physical fitness- selected animals should be free from physical defects e.g mooceyed, scrotal hernia, limping, irregular number of teats, defective and weak backline
      • Health- the selected animals should be health to avoid transmitting diseases to offspring.
        - Sick animals do not breed well and are expensive to keep.
      • Body conformation- animals for different purposes have different conformation e.g. dairy cattle are wedge-shaped while beef cattle are blocky – section should be based on purpose.
      • Temperament/behavior – Avoid animals with bad behavior/habits e.g. kicking, fighting cannibalism, egg eating, aggressiveness etc.
        - Select docile animals.
      • Quality of products- select animals that give high quality products e.g breed of sheep which produce fine, long, while cool.
      • Mothering ability- select animals with good maternal instinct
      • Fertility select those width high fertility.
      • Adaptability- select animals that are suited to the environment- consider climate of the area.
      • Prolificacy- select highly prolific animals.  (6x2 = 12hrs
    2. Function of parts of the female reproductive system in poultry
      - Ovary- produces ova/eggs
      - Secretes female hormones –responsible for the size and colour of combs.
      - Magnium-thick albumen is added.
      - Tunnel/intrundiblum-challazae added
      - Isthmus- shell membranes added
      - Water and mineral salts added
      - Thin albumen added.
      - Uterus(shelling gland-shell added
      - Shell pigment added
      - Addition of albumen is completed
      - Vagina-virginal fluid secreted- to reduce friction during laying.
      - Cloaca-used for copulation/sperms are deposited.
      - Exit for egg.   Any correct 4x2 = 8mks
    1. The role of livestock industry in Kenya’s economy
      - Provision food-livestock products e.g meat, milk, eggs, honey are used as food.
      - Source of power- some animals are used to provide power for carrying out various activities e.g donkeys, oxen, camels etc. .
      - Provides employment-several people are employed in the livestock industry directly or indirectly e.g in K.M.C
      - Social –cultural uses e.g payment of dowry, status symbol, sacrifices etc.
      - Sources of income-animals and animal products sold to earn the farmer income.
      - Source of foreign exchange-livestock products exported to earn the country foreign exchange
      - Provides raw materials to industries- boosts industrialization.
      - A market for industrial goods   any correct t 5x2 -= 10mks
    2. life cycle of a three host tick
      - The adult tick lays eggs on the ground
      - Egg hatch into larvae
      - Larvae attach themselves to the first host
      - Larvae fee, suck blood + become engorged and drop on the ground.
      - On the ground larvae moults into nymph.
      - Nymph climbs onto the second host
      - Larvae feed on second host, become engorged and drops on the ground.
      - Engorged nymph moults into adult
      - Adult attach on third host
      - On third host the adults feed, mate
      - Adult drops to the ground to lay eggs.   10 x1 = 10mks


Tap Here to Download for 50/-

Why download?

  • ✔ To read offline at any time.
  • ✔ To Print at your convenience
  • ✔ Share Easily with Friends / Students

Join our whatsapp group for latest updates
Subscribe now

access all the content at an affordable rate
Buy any individual paper or notes as a pdf via MPESA
and get it sent to you via WhatsApp


What does our community say about us?

Join our community on:

  • easyelimu app
  • Telegram
  • facebook page
  • twitter page
  • Pinterest