History and Government Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 End Term 2 2021

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. Write your name and Index number in the spaces provided above
  2. Answer all questions in section A
  3. Answer any three questions in section B
  4. Answer any two questions in section C

FOR EXAMINER’S USE ONLY

SECTION

QUESTION

MAXIMUM

CANDIDATE’S
SCORE

 

A

1 – 17

25

 

 

B

18 – 21

45

 

 

C

22 - 24

30

 

 

TOTAL SCORE

 



QUESTIONS

SECTION A 25 MARKS
Answer all questions in this section

  1. List two methods used by elders to pass information to the young generation on history and government in traditional African communities 2mks)
  2. Name the oldest hominid in the stages of evolution of man 1mk)
  3. Outline two non environmental reasons for the domestication of crops and animals by early man 2mks)
  4. Identify the greatest contribution of Michael Faraday in the field of science 1mk)
  5. Outline two roles played by the middlemen during the Trans-Atlantic trade 2mks)
  6. Give the main use of steam power during industrial revolution in Europe 1mk)
  7. Identify the main method of trade in Africa during the pre-colonial period1mk)
  8. State two advantages of using fire and smoke signals to pass messages in traditional societies 2mks)
  9. State one way in which the city of Cairo was influenced by river Nile 1mk)
  10. Identify one symbol of national unity in Shona Kingdom during the pre colonial period 1mk)
  11. Identify two European activities in African during the 19th century 2mks
  12. Name two communities that took part in the maji maji rebellion in Tanganyika 2mks)
  13. Identify two similar methods used to recruit African labour in the British and French colonies in Africa 2mks)
  14. Name the political party that led Ghana to independence from Britain in 1957 1mk)
  15. State the country that was blamed for the outbreak of the first world war 1mk)
  16. Identify one Germany colony in West Africa 1mk)
  17. Identify two permanent members of the security council of the united nations organization 2mks)

SECTION B 45 MARKS
Answer any three questions in this section

  1. a) State ways in which the development of the upright posture improved the early man’s way of life 5mks)
    b) Describe the way of life of early human beings during the middle stone age period 10mks)
  2. a) Give three developments that have taken place in road transport system since 1950 3mks)
    b) Explain ways through which the invention of the railway speeded up industrialization in Europe 12mks)
  3. a) Give three functions of Lukiko in the kingdom of Buganda during the pre-colonial period 3mks)
    b) Explain six factors that led to the growth of the Asante empire by the 19th century 12mks)
  4. a) State five factors that led to the development of African nationalism in Ghana 5mks)
    b) Describe the problems which undermined the activities of nationalists in Mozambique 10mks)

SECTION C 30 MKS
Answer any two questions in this section

  1. a) Identify five main organs of the United Nations Organization 5mks)
    b) Explain five ways through which the United Nation promotes peace in the world 10mks)
  2. a) Give three political changes introduced by Mobutu Seseko which led to dictatorship in democratic republic of Congo 3mks)
    b) Describe six social developments that have taken place in Tanzania since independence 12mks)
  3. a) Give three categories of the members of parliament in Britain 3mks)
    b) Explain six functions of the cabinet in India 12mks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A 25 MARKS
Answer all questions in this section
1. Methods used by elders to pass information to the young generation on history and government in traditional African communities

  • Through proverbs
  • Through myths
  • Riddles
  • Legends
  • Stories/narratives 2x1 = 2mks)
  • Dances

2. The oldest hominid in the stages of evolution of man

  • Aegyptepithicus/ Egyptian Ape 1x1=1mk)

3. Non environmental reasons for the domestication of crops and animals by early man

  • Increase in human population
  • Competition for food between man and wild animals
  • Hunting and gathering was tiresome and insecure
  • Some crops and animals had economic value
  • Over hunting and depleted stocks 2x1=2mks)

4. Identify the greatest contribution of Michael Faraday in the field of science

  • He invented electricity 1x1=1mk)

5. Roles played by the middlemen during the Trans-Atlantic trade

  • Transported goods to and from the interior
  • Obtained goods from the interior
  • Traded/exchanged goods with European traders at a cost 1x1=1mk)

6. Main use of steam power during industrial revolution in Europe

  • Driving machines/machine in industries 1x1=1mk)

7. Main method of trade in Africa during the pre-colonial period

  • Barter trade 1x1 =1mk)

8. Advantages of using fire and smoke signals to pass messages in traditional societies

  • Messages could only be used by communities using them
  • Conveyed messages faster
  • Was a cheaper method of sending messages
  • Messages could reach many people 2x1=2mks)

9. Way in which the city of Cairo was influenced by river Nile

  • It was used for transport
  • Provided water for domestic/industrial use
  • The Nile valley was fertile for agriculture 1x1=1mk)

10.Symbol of national unity in Shona Kingdom during the pre colonial period

  • Royal Fire
  • Mwene mtapa/emperor/king

11. European activities in African during the 19th century

  • Trading
  • Spreading Christianity
  • Exploring
  • Establishing settlements
  • Colonization
  • Establishing western education
  • Mining 2x1=2mks)

12. Communities that took part in the maji maji rebellion in Tanganyika

  • Ngoni
  • Ndendeule
  • Wamatumbi
  • Bena
  • Pogoro
  • Ngindo 2x1=2mks)
  • Luguru
  • Zaramo
  • Wamwera

13. Methods used to recruit African labour in the British and French colonies in Africa

  • Imposition of taxes on Africans
  • Used chiefs to recruit labour
  • Introduced forced labour 2x1=2mks)
  • Introduction of Kipande system.
  • Creation of reserves.

14. Name the political party that led Ghana to independence from Britain in 1957

  • Convention People’s Party (CPP)

15. Country that was blamed for the outbreak of the first world war

  • Germany 1x1=1)

16. Germany colonies in West Africa

  • Cameroon
  • Togo
  • Namibia 1x1=1mk)

17. Permanent members of the security council of the United Nations Organization

  • Russia
  • United Kingdom or Britain
  • France 2x1=2mks)
  • China
  • Britain (Uk)

SECTION B 45 MARKS
Answer any three questions in this section
18a) Ways in which the development of the upright posture improved the early man’s way of life  

  • The early man was able to walk/run faster with long strides
  • Man could use the hands to carry out farming activities
  • Man could use the hands to grasp items conveniently
  • Man could spot animals/wild fruits which he used to hunt/gather from a distance
  • Man could see impending danger from a distance and take appropriate measures
  • Man used hands to make tools/weapons which were used for different purposes
  • Man used hands to defend himself/attack enemies 5x1=5mks)

b) Ways of life of early human beings during the middle stone age period                                                

  • Made tools and weapons which were thin, light and sharp known as acheulian tools
  • Hunted large animals like hippopotamus and elephants
  • He discovered fire and therefore cooked his food
  • He wore animal skins, necklace and painted his body with red ochre and oil
  • Lived in groups of 50 people and had a leader.
  • Started burying dead.
  • Developed a language of communication
  • Painted pictures of animals he hunted on the caves. 5x2=10mks)

19a) Three developments that have taken place in road transport system since 1950 

  • Tarmac roads which are durable have been constructed
  • Bridges have been constructed to facilitate travel on roads
  • Roads have been straightened and widened to cater for the increasing volume of traffic
  • Dual carriage ways have been constructed to ease traffic congestion
  • Motor ways have been constructed in developed countries for exclusive use of wheels
  • Construction of macadamized roads 3x1=3mks)

b) Ways through which the invention of the railway speeded up industrialization in Europe

  • The invention of the railway facilitated transport of bulky and heavy raw materials
  • It eased and speeded up transportation of bulky goods
  • Facilitated the transportation of heavy industrial sources of energy to the industries especially coal.
  • Provided reliable and cheaper means of transport for workers
  • Facilitated interaction between towns and business people and thus promoted investment in business.
  • Facilitated migration and settlement of people to new lands which became sources of raw materials.
  • Opened up mining and farming in the interior of most countries.
  • Facilitated transport of heavy machinery for installation in industries   6x2=12mks)

20a) Functions of Lukiko in the kingdom of Buganda during the pre-colonial period

  • It helped Kabaka in the administration
  • Acted as the final court of appeal
  • It advised the Kabaka
  • It represented the people’s interest
  • Directed the collection of taxes
  • Made laws 3x1=3mks)

b) Factors that led to the growth of the Asante empire by the 19th century

  • Wealth from the trade which enabled the kingdom to prosper.
  • Able rulers who were courageous.
  • Symbol of unity/golden stool which bound people together
  • Centralized system of government which ensured stability
  • A strong army which provided defense to the kingdom
  • Availability of gold which enabled the kingdom to generate wealth for further development
  • The Odwira festival brought the leader’s together thereby making the empire more cohesive 6x2=12mks)

21a) Factors that led to the development of African nationalism in Ghana        

  • Inadequate African representation in the Legco
  • Loss of independence/powers by traditional chiefs
  • The alienation of African land
  • Existence of educated African elites in Ghana
  • The high rate of unemployment
  • The able leadership by Nkrumah
  • Introduction of forced taxation 5x1=5mks)

b) Problems which undermined the activities of nationalists in Mozambique

  • Mozambique was colonized by Portugal a power that was poor
  • There were many settlers there who had invested heavily in the country
  • Mozambique was an important market for Portuguese
  • Portuguese got support from south Africa
  • Mozambique suffered the worst thing of exploitation and repression which discouraged the emergency of nationalism
  • Mozambique was geographically big and with poor infrastructure.
  • Due to racial discrimination practiced by Portuguese.   5x2=10mks)

SECTION C 30 MKS
Answer any two questions in this section
22a) Main organs of the United Nations Organization                              

  • The general assembly
  • The security council
  • The secretariat
  • The international court of justice
  • The economic and social council
  • The trusteeship council   5x1=5mks)

b) Ways through which the united nation promotes peace in the world

  • It sends peace keeping missions to conflict areas in order to cease fire
  • Uses envies to mediate disputes between worrying groups so as to find amicable solution to problems
  • It hears cases through the international court of justice between nations
  • Imposes sanctions against states that defy the resolution in order to force them to comply
  • Uses peace messages to sensitize people on importance of peace
  • Discourages armament by signing arms control treaties between states.
  • Promotes human rights/freedoms by enforcing international laws which protects people against abuse
  • Provides humanitarian assistance to the needy by giving them protection/basic needs 5x2=10mks)

23a) Political changes introduced by Mobutu Seseko which led to dictatorship in democratic republic of Congo

  • He made himself head of state and governments thus centralized power in his hands
  • Banned all political parties and formed the people’s revolutionary movement and made it the only political party
  • He reformed the constitution and stripped parliament off its powers
  • He abolished the federal system of government and local assemblies
  • He declared himself the president for life in 1970 3x1=3mks)

b) Social developments that have taken place in Tanzania since independence

  • The establishment of more schools/colleges/universities has enabled many people to access education
  • The introduction of free universal primary education had reduced illiteracy levels among the people
  • Education system created towards promoting socialism ideals has created a selfless society thus promoting equity
  • Improvement of health through establishment of more health facilities/hospitals/dispensaries
  • Social cohesion of diverse elements has been promoted by the socialist ideology thereby creating breaking communication barrier among the people.
  • Theater and sports have been formed through the establishment of sporting facilities 6x2=12mks)

24a) Categories of the members of parliament in Britain 3x1=3mks)

  • Members elected by universal suffrage
  • Members nominated by the monarch
  • Hereditary peers/royal family members
  • Life peers
  • Senior leaders of the church of England

b) Functions of the cabinet in India

  • Formulates policy matters that are followed by the state
  • Recommends all major appointments made by the president
  • Advises the president/prime minister on various matters of the government
  • Settles interdepartmental disputes in order to ensure harmonious working relations between them
  • It co-ordinates activities of the department in their respective ministries
  • It defends government policies both within and out the parliament
  • It approves all proposals for the legislative enactment of the government policies 6x2=12mks)

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