Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Opener Term 1 Exams 2022

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Instructions to students

  • This paper has two sections: A and B
  • Answer ALL the questions in section A.
  • In section B, answer questions 6 and any other TWO questions.
  • Candidates must answer the questions in English.



    1. What is human Geography? (2 marks)
    2. How is Geography related with Agriculture? (2 marks)
    1. State two main reasons why forest reserves were created. (2 marks)
    2. List three primary forest products. (3 marks)
  3. Study the sketch map of Ghana below and use it to answer the question (a).
      1. Identify the cocoa growing areas marked X and Y. (2 mark)
      2. Name the Port City marked Z. (1 marks)
    2. State three economic problems facing cocoa farmers in Ghana. (3 marks)
    1. What is forestry? (2 marks)
    2. State three physical factors favouring the development of softwood forests in Canada. (3 marks)
    1. Name two major petroleum producing countries in the Middle East. (2 marks)
    2. State three conditions necessary for the formation of petroleum. (3 marks)

Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section.

  1. Study the photograph below and use it to answer questions (a) and (b).
      1. Name the type of photograph provided. (1 mark)
      2. State three reasons for your answer in (i) above. (3 marks)
      3. Identify the economic activity represented on the photograph? (1 mark)
      4. Give four main features that can be seen on the photograph. (4 marks)
      1. List three counties to the east of the Rift Valley where the economic activity shown on the photograph is practiced. (3 marks)
      2. Describe the stages involved in the processing of the crop shown at the factory. (8 marks)
    3. State five characteristics of horticulture farming in Kenya. (5 marks)
      1. What is open cast mining? (2 marks)
      2. Describe how solution mining method is carried out. (5 marks)
    2. Explain three ways in which mining contributes to pollution. (6 marks)
    3. Apart from South Africa, name four other diamonds producing countries in Africa. (4 marks)
    4. Explain four problems facing diamonds mining in South Africa. (8 marks)
      1. Distinguish between indigenous and exotic forests. (2 marks)
      2. State four differences between natural forests and planted forests.(8 marks)
      1. State three measures that are being taken in Kenya to conserve forests. (3 marks)
      2. Explain three factors favouring the exploitation of softwood in Canada. (6 marks)
    3. Form four students conducted a field study on forestry at a forest in their sub county
      1. State three reasons why it is important to seek permission. (3 marks)
      2. State three challenges that the group is likely to have encountered during the study. (3 marks)
    1. List three physical factors that influence Agriculture. (3 marks)
    2. State five characteristics of extensive mechanized grain cultivation. (5 marks)
    3. Describe the commercial cultivation of sugarcane in western Kenya until harvesting. (7 marks)
    4. Explain five economic problems facing sugarcane farmers in Western Kenya. (10 marks)
      1. What is nomadic pastoralism? (2 marks)
      2. State four physical factors that favour beef farming in Argentina. (4 marks)
    2. Explain four measures taken by the Kenyan government to improve pastoral farming. (8 marks)
    3. Compare dairy farming in Kenya and in Denmark under the following sub-headings:
      1. Scale of production. (2 marks)
      2. Level of technology. (2 marks)
      3. Marketing of dairy products. (2 marks)
    4. State five economic benefits of dairy farming in Kenya. (5 marks)

Marking Scheme

    1. Human Geography is a branch of Geography the studies people and their activities on the earth’s surface.
    2. Geography studies factors influencing agriculture and farming systems on the earth
      • To protect water catchment areas.
      • To control soil erosion.
      • Timber
      • Poles
      • Firewood
      • Nuts
      • Honey
      • Herbs
      • Grass
        • X – Akwapim
        • Y - Kumasi
      2. Z - Takoradi
      • Fluctuation of cocoa prices in the world market which at times lowers income to farmers thus lowering their morale
      • Shortage of labour at times during harvesting leading to delays
      • Smuggling of cocoa mainly from Ivory Coast into Ghana which threatens the quality of cocoa from Ghana
      • Impassable feeder roads in some areas which delay the delivery of cocoa to buying areas
      • Competition for land for other economic activities such as construction and for food crops which lowers the quantity of cocoa produced.
      1. Forestry is the practice of managing and using forests, trees and their associated resources for human benefits.
        Forestry is the science of developing and managing forests including cultivating them.
      • High rainfall mainly on the windward slopes of the Rocky Mountains favours growth of large trees especially in British Columbia..
      • Rugged landscape due to Rockies especially in British Columbia province hinders settlement and agriculture favouring natural coniferous forests.
      • Cool to cold climate in some parts of Canada favours the growth of coniferous trees.
      • Availability of extensive uninhabited land favour the establishment of softwood forests.
      • Saudi Arabia
      • Iran
      • Iraq
      • Kuwait
      • United Arabs Emirates
      • There must be presence of organic remains.
      • Non porous /impermeable rock layers must occur to prevent hydrocarbons from escaping.
      • Sea/lake floor must be stagnant .i.e. absence of oxygen to prevent rotting and living things to feed on the remains.
      • Presence of sedimentary rocks such as sandstone, clay and shale.
      • Presence of pressure and heat to squeeze the remains into oil.
      1. Ground close up photograph

        • The camera is held very near to the main features.
        • The area covered by the photograph is small.
        • The camera focuses of very few objects.
        • The main objects are blocking other features in the back ground.

      3. Coffee harvesting/picking

        • Coffee trees
        • Coffee berries
        • People/labourers/farmers
        • Horizon/clouds
      1. Kiambu, Nyeri, Murang’a, Kirinyaga, Meru, Embu, Parts of Machakos and Taita-Taveta

        • At the Coffee factory, Berries are poured on a mat and sorted by hand to remove unripe and spoiled berries.
        • The Berries are weighed and poured into a tunnel which leads them to a machine that removes the outer covering pulp.
        • The beans obtained are fermented in tanks for some time.
        • The Beans are washed and sun dried on racks for about a week.
        • Some dried beans are packed in bags and marketed as unroasted coffee.
        • Other dried beans are peeled using a machine to remove husks.
        • Peeled beans are sorted and graded according to size and quality.
        • The beans are roasted at about 1000C and allowed to cool.
        • Finally, the beans are ground into powder and packed ready for sale.
      • Farms are generally small in size with a few being large.
      • Heavy capital is invested in farm structures, farm inputs labour, storage and transport.
      • Plots are intensively farmed for maximum produce per unit area.
      • Farming activities are scientifically managed to ensure high yields.
      • Farms are located near passable and efficient roads.
      • Horticultural production is labour intensive as crops require close monitoring and care.
      1. Mining refers to the process of extracting valuable minerals and fossils fuels on or from the earth’s crust.
        • A vertical hole is drilled using machines to reach the layer with the mineral deposit.
        • Three pipes are inserted into the hole to reach the deposit.
        • Superheated water is passed into the deposit through one pipe.
        • After the mineral dissolves or melts, hot compressed air is pumped into the deposit underground to create pressure.
        • The dissolved or molten mineral then rises to the surface through the third largest pipe.
        • At the surface, the water is evaporated leaving the mineral.
        • Solution method is used to mine salt, potash and Sulphur.
      • Removal of vegetation to pave way for mining results in severe soil erosion which is a main cause of water pollution.
      • Open cast mining produces a lot of dust which contributes to air pollution.
      • Dumping of rock waste/overburden from open cast and underground mines results in land pollution.
      • Mineral processing plants may discharge toxic effluent which pollutes water bodies such as rivers and lakes.
      • Powerful explosives used to blast some hard rocks produces loud blasts that cause noise pollution.
      • Botswana
      • Angola
      • DR Congo
      • Namibia
      • Tanzania
      • Zimbabwe
      • Sierra Leone
      • Deepening of mines of gem diamond bearing rocks which lie deep underground hence increasing the cost of bringing the ore to the surface
      • Low diamond content in some ores thus increasing the cost of production
      • Skilled Labour shortage is due to competition for experts especially engineers from other sectors and the economy
      • Exhaustion of diamond in some mines thus great costs in exploring and developing new ones.
      • Fluctuations in the world market prices for diamonds which reduces the profits/revenue earned.
      1. Exotic forests consist of trees that are introduced from other regions of the world whereas indigenous forests consist of trees that are native to a region or country.
        • Planted forests have trees of the same height while tree species for natural forests vary in height.
        • Planted forests mainly have exotic tree species whereas most natural forests consist of indigenous tree species.
        • Planted forests mainly have very little or no undergrowth whereas most natural forests have thick undergrowth.
        • In a planted forest, trees mainly occur in pure stands/same species whereas in most natural forests, trees species are mixed.
        • Planted forests have trees in rows while in natural forests, tree species are scattered.
        • Encouraging farmers to practice agroforestry.
        • Establishment of the Nyayo/Kenya tea zones to protect some forests.
        • Promoting the use of alternative sources of energy to reduce wood fuel.
        • Creating forest reserves to protect some key endangered forests.
        • Encouraging the recycling of some wood products such as used paper.
        • Creating awareness to people on the importance of forests.
        • Encouraging people to use energy saving stoves/jikos.
        • Presence of some rivers such as river Fraser that offer cheap means of transporting logs to mills downstream.
        • The rivers provide water which is highly used during soaking and bleaching during processing.
        • Occurrence of waterfall along some rivers have facilitated the construction of dams that generate hydroelectric power for the wood/paper factories.
        • High demand for wood products especially in urban areas and in neighbouring United States America.
        • Occurrence of valley bottoms along the coast that are ideal for the setting up of paper mills.
        • It is an official requirement to seek permission.
        • To avoid prosecution in case of trespass.
        • In order for the forester to assign the group a resource person.
        • To enable administration arrange for transport
        • To enable administration provide essential tools.
        • To enable administration take care of any disruption in the school programme
        • For the school administration to provide lunch.
        • Attacks by wild animals / insects.
        • Harsh weather conditions like high temperature.
        • Rugged terrain making movement difficult.
        • Fatigue due to walking over long distances.
        • Inadequate time for data collection.
        • Injuries may arise from sharp thorns or stinging plants.
      • Climate
      • Relief
      • Soil
      • Very large farms ranging between 240 and 16000 hectares.
      • Farm operations from land preparation to harvesting are mechanized.
      • Wheat is the main crop grown
      • Heavy capital is invested in the purchase and maintenance of farm machinery and farm buildings.
      • High yields due to very large farms.
      • Monoculture is practised.
      • The land is cleared of its natural vegetation.
      • It is ploughed mainly using tractors.
      • Harrowing is done to loosen the large lumps of soil.
      • Shallow furrows are dug at intervals of 1.2 and 1.8 metres apart.
      • Cuttings from old cane are dipped in insecticides and buried in the farrows.
      • Top dressing/nitrogen fertilizers are applied.
      • Weeding is done regularly but at times weeds are sprayed.
      • In Western Kenya region, sugarcane matures after 18 months.
      • In Western Kenya, sugarcane is mainly harvested manually by hand cutting of the cane using sharp machetes/pangas.
      • The harvested cane is loaded into Lorries for transportation to the factory.
      • Flooding of the market by cheap imported sugar results in unfair competition thus causing delay in payment to the farmers.
      • Some sugar processers are unable to adequately pay for the cane delivered. This causes delays in harvesting hence reducing the quality of the cane and the farmer’s earnings.
      • Closure of some factories such as Mumias due to mismanagement and corruption has deprived the farmers of their income forcing some to switch to other crops.
      • Impassable roads in some areas especially during the wet season leads to delayed delivery of the cane to the factory lowering the quality and subsequently profit to the farmers.
      • Some sugarcane processing factories are unable to cope with the supply of cane from out growers due to outdated processing technology making some farmers to abandon production.
      • High cost of farm inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides increases the cost of production thus reducing the farmer’s profit margin.
      • Mismanagement of factories and cooperatives lead to delayed payments thus discouraging farmers.
      1. Nomadic pastoralism refers to extensive traditional grazing of livestock on natural pasture involving seasonal/constant migration in search for pasture and water.
        • Moderate temperature in the pampas region enables continuous growth of pasture throughout the year.
        • Pampas region receives moderate rainfall which is well distributed favouring continuous growth of pasture and provides water for beef cattle.
        • Well drained soils with a variety of nutrients from the slopes of the Andes supports healthy natural grass for the beef cattle.
        • Extensive and very gently sloping pampas grassland which allows cattle to graze freely/easily.
      • Constructing cattle dips in pastoralists areas to assist in the control of pests and diseases.
      • Drilling boreholes in some areas to help in water provision so as to limit movement.
      • Encouraging pastoralists to cross breed their indigenous breeds with higher quality cattle to produce hybrids of higher quality.
      • Encouraging pastoralists to keep smaller numbers of animals to control overgrazing.
      • Encouraging pastoralists to start group ranching in their areas as a commercial activity so as to improve on quality.
      • Provision of extension officers through county governments to train pastoralists on modern methods of animal production so as to improve quality.
      1. Scale of production. (2 marks)
        • In Kenya, dairy farming is carried out both on a small scale and on a large scale whereas in Denmark, dairy farming is carried out by individual farmers on relatively large scale.
      2. Level of technology. (2 marks)
        • In Kenya, there is limited use of machines such as milking machines in large scale dairy farms whereas in Denmark, there is extensive use of advanced technology involving automated feeding machines and milking machines.
      3. Marketing of dairy products. (2 marks)
        • In Kenya, almost all the milk produced is consumed locally with only a small percentage being exported within the East African Community whereas in Denmark, a large percentage of dairy products are exported to the European Union, United States and Japan.
          In Kenya, a large percentage of milk is sold directly to consumers while the rest is sold to milk processors, hotels and milk bars. In Denmark, almost all the milk is sold to processors and companies owned by cooperatives.
      • Kenya earns foreign exchange when dairy products are exported to some countries.
      • Creation of employment opportunities to many people in the dairy farms and in milk processing plants.
      • Commercial dairy farming is a source of income to many farmers thus enabling them to improve their standards of living.
      • Development of industries such as milk processing, animal feeds manufacture, milking machines and milking cans making in the country.
      • Provision of human food through milk and milk products.
      • Source of revenue to the government through taxes collected from the sales of some dairy products.

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