History and Government Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Opener Term 1 Exams 2022

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HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
Paper 1

Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper consists of three sections; A, B and C.
  • Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C.

Questions

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1. Name two eastern Cushite communities in Kenya. (2 marks)
  2. Identify two forms of oral traditions in history. (2 marks)
  3. Give one reason for the coming of the Arabs to the Kenyan coast before 1500AD. (1 mark)
  4. Give two Levels of government. (2 marks)
  5. Apart from Vasco Da Gama Pillar, which other historical monument was built by the Portuguese in Kenya? (1 mark)
  6. Highlight two national days in Kenya. (2 marks)
  7. Outline two ways through which African communities reacted to British colonization in Kenya. (2 marks)
  8. Name any two arms of the government. (2 marks)
  9. Outline the main grievance of the Ukambani Members Association. (1 mark)
  10. Identify the event that led to the declaration of the state of emergency. (1 mark)
  11. Highlight two roles played by women during MAUMAU. (2 marks)
  12. Mention one type of elections held in Kenya. (1 mark)
  13. Identify two failures of Jomo Kenyatta. (2 marks)
  14. Mention the political party formed by Oginga Odinga in 1966. (1 mark)
  15. Highlight one contribution of Prof. Wangari Maathai. (1 mark)
  16. Identify one custom borrowed by the Bantus from the Cushites. (1 mark)
  17. Mention one election official in Kenya. (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

  1.      
    1. Name five communities that belong to the plain Nilotes. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss the political organization of the Agikuyu in pre- colonial era. (10 marks)
  2.    
    1. State five reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan coast. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges faced by Christian missionaries. (10 marks)
  3.    
    1. Identify three peaceful methods of conflict resolution (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors which undermine national unity in Kenya. (12 marks)
  4.    
    1. List five roles of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five features of the Constitution of Kenya 2010. (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  1.        
    1. Highlight five circumstances under which a by – election may be held in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss the principles that govern elections in Kenya. (10 marks)
  2.     
    1. Name any three political associations formed in Kenya before 1939. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six grievances of the early political associations. (12 marks)
  3.   
    1. Mention the three sections of the Kenya Defense Forces. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the National Police Service. (12 marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Name two eastern Cushite communities in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Borana, Somali, Oromo, Gabra, Rendille and Burji

  2. Identify two forms of oral traditions in history. (2 marks)
    • songs, proverbs, poems, myths, legends and folktales.

  3. Give one reason for the coming of the Arabs to the Kenyan coast before 1500AD. (1 mark)
    • They wanted to trade and to control the commercial activities of the East African coast. They brought goods likeiron items, swords, daggers and glass in exchange for gold, ivory, slaves, rhinoceros horns, leopard skins, bees wax etc. Slaves were on high demand.
    • Some Arabs came as refugees, running away from religious and political prosecution in Arabia.
    • They came to spread the Islamic religion.
    • They came to explore the East African coast.
    • Some came to establish settlements along the East African coast.

  4. Give two levels of government in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • National government
    • County government

  5. Apart from Vasco Da Gama Pillar, which other historical monument was built by the Portuguese in Kenya? (1 mark)
    • Fort Jesus

  6. Highlight two national days in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Madaraka day – 1st June
    • Mashujaa day – 20th October
    • Jamuhuri day – 12th December

  7. Outline two ways through which African communities reacted to British colonization in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Resistance
    • Collaboration
    • Mixed reaction

  8. Name any two arms of the government. (2 marks)
    • The judiciary
    • The executive
    • The parliament/ legislature

  9. Outline the main grievance of the Ukambani Members Association. (1 mark)
    • Return of African cattle which were confiscated by the British.

  10. Identify the event that led to the declaration of the state of emergency. (1 mark)
    • Assassination of chief Waruhiu a loyal British chief.

  11. Highlight two roles played by women during MAUMAU. (2 marks)
    • Some women were fully-fledged warriors fighting alongside men.
    • The women in the camps made sure that the family continued intact through all of the while their men were out fighting.
    • Mau Mau women continued to educate their children to be the future leaders of their government.
    • Many women sought support for Mau Mau internationally.Some women offered their property for use by mau
    • mau.
    • Women were first class spies and informers.
    • Women supplied guns.
    • Women had primary responsibility for the organization and maintenance of the supply lines.
    • Women composed songs like the Kanyegenuri, to commemorate their deeds,
    • They also recruited for Mau Mau fighters.
    • They officiated at and participated in oathing ceremonies.
    • They did minor military duties like cleaning guns as well as seeing to the other needs like meeting his sexual needs.
    • Some women were co-opted in the political Arena in the mau mau duo-sex councils.
    • Women also contributed the services of their children who served as errand boys and girls and informers.
    • Women were allowed to flirt with "enemies" to gather vital information, weapons and other resources.
    • Some women like Wanjiru were appointed judges in Nakuru's Mau Mau Courts which passed sentences on anti-Mau Mau crimes.

  12. Mention one type of elections held in Kenya. (1 mark)
    • General elections
    • By elections
    • Re- run elections

  13. Identify two failures of Jomo Kenyatta. (2 marks)
    • Kenyatta failed to mould Kenya, being its founding father, into a homogeneous multi-ethnic state. the country remains a de facto confederation of competing tribes.
    • His resettlement of many Kikuyu tribesmen in the country's Rift Valley province is widely considered to have been done unfairly.
    • His authoritarian style, with elements of patronage, favouritism, tribalism and/or nepotism drew criticism and dissent, and set a bad example followed by his successors.
    • He had the Constitution radically amended to expand his powers, consolidating executive power.
    • He was also been criticized for ruling through a post colonial clique of his relatives, mainly African Kikuyu colonial collaborators from Kiambu, while giving scant reward to the real fighters for Kenya's independence.
    • Kenyatta has further been criticized for encouraging the culture of wealth accumulation by public officials their office influence, thereby deeply entrenching corruption in Kenya.
    • His policies are also criticized for leading to a large income and development inequality gap in the country favouring mainly Nairobi and the Country's Central Highlands, over others.

  14. Mention the political party formed by Oginga Odinga in 1966. (1 mark)
    • Kenya Peoples Union ( KPU)

  15. Highlight one contribution of Prof. Wangari Maathai. (1 mark)
    • She actively fought for environmental protection and was given the Nobel peace prize.

  16. Identify one custom borrowed by the Bantus from the Cushites. (1 mark)
    • Clitoridectomy ( circumcision)

  17. Mention one election official in Kenya. (1 mark)
    • Returning officer
    • Presiding officer
    • Clerks
  18.     
    1. Name five communities that belong to the plain Nilotes. (5 marks)
      • Maasai
      • Turkana
      • Njemps
      • Samburu
      • Iteso

    2. Discuss the political organization of the Agikuyu in pre- colonial era. (10 marks)
      • The Agikuyu had a decentralized system of government. The family was an important unit.
      • Several families formed a clan (Mbari) which occupied a specific territory (ridge)
      • The Mbari was headed by a council of elders known as Kiama. The head of the kiama was known as muthamaki. He coordinated the activities of the Mbari. He also presided over assemblies.
      • Several elders formed a higher council of elders called kiamakiaathamaki which:
        1. Solved land disputes
        2. Settled civil and criminal disputes
        3. Presided over religious functions
        4. They formed the highest court of appeal. Their decision was final
      • The agikuyu had the age set system called riika, where boys were placed after initiation.
      • The age sets provided warriors who defended the community, and unified the agikuyu therefore promoting political stability.

  19.         
    1. State five reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan coast. (5 marks)
      • They wanted to trade with the coastal towns in order to obtain items like gold, ivory and spices.
      • They were interested in creating a trading empire along the East African coast.
      • They wanted to find a sea route to India. This was because the Ottoman Turks dominated the land routes limiting trade between Europe and India.
      • They came to explore and satisfy their love for adventure
      • They came to stop the spread of Islam, and to avenge the earlier defeat by Muslims who had conquered the Iberian Peninsula and Spain. They therefore wanted to convert the Muslims into Christianity.They were
      • looking for a legendary Christian King called Prester John of Ethiopia who was to assist them in conquering the Muslims.
      • The East African coast had natural harbours which were of strategic importance to the Portuguese. They wanted to make the East African coast a base for their trading and naval ships where they could get food and water.

    2. Explain five challenges faced by Christian missionaries. (10 marks)
      • They suffered from tropical diseases e.g. Malaria. Krapf lost his wife and son and was eventually forced to give up his work and go back home.
      • There were poor means of transport and communication.Therewere no roads or railway into the interior. The missionaries therefore walked long distance on foot.
      • Missionaries also faced resistance from Africans. Christianity condemned some African practices such as polygamy,female circumcision etc.
      • Islam posed stiff competition at the coast.
      • Rivalry between different Christian denominations notably Catholic and Protestant missions which created confusion among Africans. This slowed down missionary work.
      • Lack of adequate finances made it difficult for the missionaries to carry out their work. They also lacked enough supplies of food, medicine etc.
      • They faced hostility from slave raiders/traders. The missionaries condemned the trade as evil and campaigned for its abolition.
      • In some cases the missionaries faced hostility from African communities who did not want foreigner e.g. the Oromo and Nandi.
      • There was a communication barrier between the missionaries and Africans as they lacked a common language. They were therefore to learn African languages.
      • The missionaries were few compared to the vast East African interior.
      • At times the missionaries e.g. Dr. David Livingstone was deserted by their counterparts.

  20.        
    1. Identify three peaceful methods of conflict resolution (3 marks)
      • Negotiation. It refers to discussions between people who are trying to reach an agreement over a dispute.
      • Arbitration. This refers to where a disagreement is solved by a neutral person.
      • Mediation. This refers to a situation where a neutral person helps two conflicting groups or an individual reach an amicable agreement.
      • Problem solving workshops: - This is where the conflicting parties talk in the presence of facilitators.

    2. Explain six factors which undermine national unity in Kenya. (12 marks)
      • Racism. This is discrimination based on the race, skin colour. This was a policy during the colonial period. It makes those that are discriminated against to develop hostility towards those that favoured.
      • Tribalism. It is favourism of people from ones tribe or ethnic group. This is seen in the admissions to schools, training institutions and allocation of resources. This also leads to hatred and ethnic clashes e.g. in Kenya during the 1991 – 1993.
      • Religious conflict. This is caused by intolerance to other people’s religious beliefs. In some cases these are usually conflicts between members of the same religion. These cause disunity and sometimes bloodshed
      • Party membership. Being a multiparty state, Kenya has got many political parties. Some of these parties draw their membership from particular part of the country giving them a tribal outlook. In other cases opposition politicians and supporters are also seen as trouble makers. They are therefore discriminated against. Think of the 2007-2008 election violence that saw many people lose their lives because of their party affiliations.
      • Political ideologies. People have got different political beliefs and thoughts. The Kenyan constitution recognizes this and accords all citizens freedom of expression. However intolerance to different political opinions can lead to national disunity.
      • Greed. This is an existence desire to have wealth or power. This makes people to be blind to the needs of others. Greed in Kenya has resulted in the grabbing of public resources e.g. land for schools, churches etc. This has led to conflicts.
      • Nepotism. This is the practice of favouring people who are relatives and friends. This can be in the form of offering jobs etc. Many unqualified relatives and friends have benefited in this manner. It creates bitterness and ill feelings among those who have been excluded.
      • Corruption. This is dishonest and illegal behavior. The most common form is bribery. It creates suspicion and hatred among people. Those who cannot afford to give bribes and those not willing to give feel cheated and frustrated. It also makes people to lose faith in various institutions e.g. the judiciary, police etc. Corruption undermines justice and the very fabric of the society.
      • Ignorance. This is lack of knowledge in a particular matter. Ignorance results in intolerance to other people’s opinions.
      • Poverty. This is inability to satisfy basic needs e.g. food, shelter, clothing, medical care etc. It leads to anti-social behaviour e.g. stealing and violence. It also creates hatred between the haves and the have not’s.

  21.           
    1. List five roles of the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission. (5 marks)
      • The Commission is responsible for conducting or supervising referenda and elections to any elective body or office.
      • It is responsible for continuous registration of citizens as voters and regular revision of the voters’ roll.
      • It Prescribes and reviews electoral boundaries in constituencies and wards at intervals of not less than eight years, and not more than twelve years.
      • It is responsible for regulation of the process by which parties nominate candidates for elections.
      • The commission is responsible for settlement of electoral disputes, including disputes relating to or arising from nominations. However it does not handle election petitions and disputes subsequent to the declaration of election results.
      • The registration of candidates for election.
      • Educate/informs the public on the requirements for voters and contestants
      • Facilitation of the observation, monitoring and evaluation of elections.
      • It is responsible for regulation of the amount of money that may be spent by or on behalf of a candidate or party in respect of any election.
      • Identifies, appoints and trains election officials.
      • Verifies and announces election results
      • Prepares ballot papers and other election materials.
      • Identifies and recommends polling stations.

    2. Explain five features of the Constitution of Kenya 2010. (10 marks)
      • Sovereignty of the people and supremacy of the Constitution. All sovereign power belongs to the people of Kenya and the power shall be exercised only according to the constitution.
      • The republic. Kenya is a sovereign republic. It is a multiparty democratic state founded on national values and principles of governance.
      • Citizenship. One can become a citizen by birth or registration. Dual citizenship is allowed. Citizens are entitled to a Kenyan passport and any document of registration or identification
      • The Bill of Rights. The constitution recognizes 26 rights and freedoms that must be respected, observed, and promoted by the state. It also recognizes the rights and freedoms of children and marginalized groups.
      • Land and Environment. All land in Kenya belongs to the people of Kenya collectively as a nation, communities and as individuals.
      • Leadership and Integrity. People holding public positions should use their power to serve Kenyans. State officers must demonstrate respect for Kenyans, make objective decision and serve without favourism
      • Representation of the People. Citizens have freedom to exercise their political rights. A third of public position should be held by women. Disabled people shall be represented.
      • The Legislature. The legislature is bicameral (National Assembly and The Senate) and is the law making body in Kenya.
      • The Executive. The National executive comprises the President, Deputy President and the Cabinet. Its composition must reflect ethnic diversity.
      • The Judiciary. The judiciary has a task of interpretation of the law and administering justice.
      • Devolved Government. Kenya is divided into counties which are interdependent. The county has a government consisting of County assembly and county executive (led by governor)

  22.         
    1. Highlight five circumstances under which a by – election may be held in Kenya. (5 marks)
      • When an elected member ceases to be a Kenyan citizen.
      • If an elected member receives a jail sentence exceeding 6 months or death penalty from a court of law.
      • If an elected member resigns, through writing to the speaker, from the national assembly.
      • If an elected member is declared bankrupt by a court of law.
      • If an elected member is found to be of unsound mind.
      • If an elected member resigns from the sponsoring political party or as an MP.
      • If an elected member fails to attend 8 consecutive sessions during the life of a particular parliament without permission from the speaker.
      • If an elected member defects from one party to another.
      • If an elected member having been elected to parliament as an independent candidate, decides to join a political party.

    2. Discuss the principles that govern elections in Kenya. (10 marks)
      • All citizens have the freedom to exercise their political rights
      • Not more than two-thirds of the members of elective public bodies shall be of the same gender.
      • Persons with disabilities must receive fair representation.
      • There must be universal suffrage based on the aspiration for fair representation and equality of vote.
      • The elections should be free and fair and will be by secret ballot, free from violence, intimidation, improper influence or corruption.
      • The elections will be conducted by an independent body, transparent; and administered in an impartial, neutral, efficient, accurate and accountable manner.

  23.         
    1. Name any three political associations formed in Kenya before 1939. (3 marks)
      • East African Association
      • Kikuyu Central Association
      • Young Kikuyu Association
      • Kikuyu Association
      • Kavirondo Taxpayers Welfare Association

    2. Explain six grievances of the early political associations. (12 marks)
      • They wanted the return of the alienated land, back to African owners.
      • They advocated for the growing of coffee and other cash crops by Africans.
      • Respect of African culture & customs e.g. Circumcision/polygamy
      • They were opposed to forced labour.
      • They wanted more educational facilities and opportunities for Africans.
      • They were demanding that all labour in urban areas be paid fair wages.
      • Removal of Kipande System.
      • Protested European domination of government.
      • Wanted hut tax and poll tax that was exclusively paid by Africans abolished.
  24.               
    1. Mention the three sections of the Kenya Defense Forces. (3 marks)
      • Kenya Army
      • Kenya Navy
      • Kenya Airforce

    2. Explain six functions of the National Police Service. (12 marks)
      • The National Police Service is responsible for the operations of the Kenya police service and the Administration police service in Kenya.
      • It has the duty of ensuring the highest standards of professionalism and discipline among its members.
      • It has the duty to prevent corruption and promote and practice transparency and accountability.
      • It has the duty to ensure that organs operating under it comply with constitutional standards of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
      • It ensures that the staff is trained to the highest possible standards of competence and integrity and to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms and dignity.
      • It fosters and promotes relationships with the broader society.

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