Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 End Term 1 Exams 2022

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  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all the questions in section A and B.
  • Answer any two questions in section C.
  • Answers should be written in the spaces provided.


  1. Name two exotic breeds of dairy goats. (1 mk
  2. State four advantages of natural method of rearing calves. (2 mks)
    1. Name livestock commonly attacked by keds. ½ mk)
    2. Give three signs of attack by keds on livestock named in 3(a) above. 1½ mk
  4. State four disadvantages of a hedge in a farm. (2 mks)
  5.  Name a tool used in carrying out each of the following practices:
      1. Cutting galvanized iron sheet - ½ mk)
      2. Cutting wood along the grains - ½ mk)
      3. Marking lines parallel to the edge of stock - ½ mk)
      4. Placing mortar between construction stones - ½ mk)
  6. State four maintenance practices carried out on a jack plane. (2 mks)
  7. State four signs of parturition in a cow. (2 mks)
  8. Explain how the following methods help in controlling livestock diseases:
    1. Mass slaughter ½ mk)
    2. Proper feeding - ½ mk)
    3. Quarantine - ½ mk)
    4. Vaccination - ½ mk)
  9. Give two uses of litter in a brooder. (1 mk)
  10. State two reasons for dehorning in cattle. (2 mks)
  11. Give four essentials of clean milk production in a herd. (2 mks) 
  12. Give four predisposing factor of pneumonia in cattle. (2 mks)
  13. State four factors that determine digestibility of a feed. (2 mks)
  14. Give four methods of preserving fish. (2 mks)
  15. Give four disadvantages of using thatch in construction of farm buildings. (2 mks)
  16. State four reasons for swarming in bees. (2 mks)


    1. A farmer was advised to prepare 180kg of calf ration containing 20% DCP. Using pearsons square method, calculate the amount of maize containing 10% DCP and sunflower containing 40% DCP the farmer needs to use. Show your working. (4 mks)
    2. State two factors considered when formulating a livestock ration. (2 mks)
  2. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the type of identification illustrated above. (1 mk)
    2. Give the identification number of the pig illustrated above. (1 mk)
    3. Using a diagram, illustrate how animal number 83 can be identified using the above method. (2 mks)
    4. What is the use of metal rails in a farrowing pen. (1 mk)
  3. The diagrams below shows the behaviour of chicks in a brooder in response to heat.
    1. Explain the behaviour of chicks in brooder;
      E – (1 mk)
      F – (1 mk)
      G – (1 mk)
    2. Explain why the brooder is rounded. (1 mk)
  4. The diagram below shows the structure of the udder of a cow. Study it then answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify parts labeled K and L. (2 mks)
      K –
      L –
    2. Name two hormones that control milk let-down in a dairy cow. (2 mks)
    3. Name one disease that attacks part labeled L. (1 mk)


    1. Describe the physical characteristics of a good dairy cow for breeding. (10 mks)
      1. State five functions of water in the body of livestock. (5 mks)
      2. Explain the advantages of a four stroke cycle engine. (5 mks)
    1. Explain five factors that affect milk composition in dairy cattle. (5 mks)
    2. Describe five factors that may lead to failure of a cow to conceive after service. (5 mks)
    3. Explain the factors that a farmer should consider when selecting materials to construct a zero grazing unit. (10 mks)
    1. Describe milk fever under the following sub-headings:
      1. Animal affected. (1 mk)
      2. Cause of disease. (1 mk)
      3. Symptoms. (5 mks)
      4. Control measures. (3 mks)
    2. Outline the advantages of artificial insemination in cattle. (10 mks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Exotic breeds of dairy goats
    • Toggenburg
    • Jamnapari
    • Saanen
    • Anglo Nubian
  2. Advantages of natural method of rearing calves
    • Calf takes milk at body temp
    • Milk is free from contamination
    • Problems of scouring are minimized
    • Calf gets adequate milk for its nutritional requirements
    1. Sheep
      • Cause irritation under heavy infestation
      • Damage wool due to scratching
      • Results in retarded growth in lambs
      • Animals becomes anaemic
    • Not suitable for paddocking as they occupy a lot of space
    • Act as hiding place for vermins and thieves
    • Thorny species can injure livestock and human beings
    • Take long to establish
    • Require regular trimming and gapping hence expensive
    • Show irregular growth leaving gaps
    • Tinsnip
    • Rip saw
    • Mortise gauge 
    • Mason’s trowel
    • Cleaning after use
    • Lubricating the adjustable screw
    • Replace broken parts
    • Tightening loose nuts and screws
    • Replace broken parts
    • Sharpening plane iron
    • Restlessness
    • Enlargement or swollen vulva
    • Clear mucus discharge from vulva.
    • Slackening of pelvic muscles
    • Full and distended udder
    • Thick milk from teats
    • Water bag appear just before birth.
    • Mass slaughter: killing all infected animals to prevent spread of disease.
    • Proper feeding: makes animal resistant to diseases controls nutritional diseases
    • Quarantine: Prevents introduction or spread of disease from one area to another.
    • Vaccination – Prevents infection of the disease
    • Absorbs moisture
    • Keeps the brooder warm
    • Keeps birds busy/scratching
    • Prevents injury to other animals and human beings
    • Prevents destruction of farm structures
    • Make the animal beautiful
    • To calm the animal
    • Enhances economic use of space
    • Improves growth rate
    • Clean cows
    • Clean milking shed
    • Healthy milking herd
    • Clean milking utensils
    • Healthy and clean milkman
    • Milk filtration, cooling and storage
    • Poor ventilation of livestock houses
    • Age of the animal
    • Dampness and chilliness in livestock houses
    • Overcrowding
    • Effects of diarrhea and other illness
    • Animal species
    • Chemical composition of the feed
    • Form in which the food is given to the animal
    • Quantity of food present in the digestive system
    • Energy to protein ratio in the feed.
    • Freezing
    • Smoking
    • Salting
    • Sun drying
    • Harbours vermin
    • Catch fire easily
    • Require regular maintenance
    • Can leak if not well placed
    • Shortage of food and water in their surrounding
    • Outbreak of diseases and parasites
    • Damage to brood combs
    • Lack of adequate ventilation
    • Dampness and bad smells
    • Sick or infertile queen
    • Overcrowding

    1. Maize = 20 x 180 = 120kg
      Sunflower = 10 x 1180 = 60kg
      • Age of the animal
      • Cost of feedstuff
      • Type of animal whether ruminant or non-ruminant
      • Nutrient requirement of the animal
      • A vailability of feedstuff
    1. Ear notching
    2. 5 + 3 + 2 + 50 + 30 + 20 = 110 (must show the working)
    3. (Any other combination unacceptable)
    4. Prevents sow from crushing the piglets

    1. E – There is draught from the side directly opposite where the chicks have crowded.
      F – Its very cold in the brooder chicks crowd around heat source
      G – Too much heat making chicks move far away from heat source
    2. To avoid overcrowding at one point which may lead to suffocation.

    1. K – alveoli L – gland cistern
    2. Oxytocin Adrenalin
      • Wedge/Triangular shaped.
      • Big stomach to store more food
      • Large well developed udder and teats
      • Well set hind quarters to allow room for big udder
      • Long thin neck and small head
      • Lean body with little flash
      • Large milk veins and milk wells
      • Straight top line
      • Long thin legs
      • Prominent pin bones
      1. Regulates body temp
        • Transportation of nutrients
        • Component of body cells and fluids
        • Make cells turgid
        • Used in biochemical reactions
        • Helps in excretion of waste products
        • Forms part of animal products.
        • Produce high power
        • Have efficient fuel and oil utilisation
        • Performs wide range of farm operations
        • Engines are efficiently cooled with water
        • Exhaust gases are effectively expelled
      • Age of the animal: old animals produce milk with low butter fat content
      • Stage of lactation: butter fat content is high in the middle phase of lactation
      • Completeness of milking: Last drawn milk from udder has higher butter fat content.
      • Season of the year: butter fat content increases during cold season.
      • Type of food eaten: food rich in roughages is richer in butter fat content.
      • Animals health: mastitis reduce butter fat content leading to watery milk
      • Breed – Jersey produce milk with more butter fat content
      • Physiological condition: Last stage of pregnancy has milk with lower butter content
      • Nutrition: Mexican marigold and silage taints milk if fed before milking.
      • Wrong timing of service
      • Low quality/expired semen
      • Poor skilled veterinary officer
      • Infertile cow
      • Blocked fallopian tubes/oviduct
      • Hormonal imbalance
      • Disease infection e.g. brucellosis
      • Cost of the material
      • Durability
      • Workability
      • Toxicity of materials to workers/animal
      • Farmers taste and preferences
      • Type of zero-grazing unit
      • Availability of skilled labour
      • Capital available
      • Suitability
      • Environmental conditions
      1. Cows/Nannies/sows that have recently given birth
      2. Low calcium levels in blood leading to increase in magnesium and sugar levels.
        • Muscular twitching causing animals to tremble
        • Staggering as the animal moves
        • Animal lies down on its side and whole body stiffens/neck twisted
        • Body functions eg urination stops
        • Stomach contents drawn to the mouth
        • Complete loss of appetite/anorexia
        • Dullness
        • Animal falls down and becomes unconscious
      4. Control
        • Partial milking for first 10 days
        • Intravenous injection with calcium salts
        • Feed the animal with diet rich in calcium and phosphorus
        • Giving high doses of vitamin D
      5. AI
        • Semen of a bull can be used even after its death
        • Heavy bulls can produce semen to serve
        • Controls breeding diseases
        • Prevents inbreeding
        • Eliminates dangerous bulls in the farm
        • Useful as a research tool
        • Easier and cheaper to transport semen that a bull
        • Quicker method to obtain a proven sire
        • Semen from one superior bull can serve many cows
        • Saves costs of rearing a bull
        • Controls breeding 

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