Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Term 2 Opener Exams 2022

Share via Whatsapp
Download PDF for future reference Get on Whatsapp for 50/-
Instructions for candidates
  • This paper consists of TWO sections; A and B
  • Answer ALL the questions in section A.
  • Answer Question 6 and any other two questions from section B.
For examiner’s use only

SECTION

QUESTIONS

MAXIMUM SCORE

CANDIDATE’S

A

1-5

25

 

B

6

25

 

7

25

 

8

25

 

9

25

 

10

25

 
 

TOTAL

 

QUESTIONS

SECTION A
Answer all the questions in this section.
  1.                              
    1. Define mass wasting. (2mks)
    2. State THREE factors that influence mass wasting. (3mks)
  2.                        
    1. Distinguish between weather and Climate. (2mks)
    2. Give THREE characteristics of ITCZ. (3mks)
  3.                              
    1. List THREE sources of sedimentary rocks. (3mks)
    2. Give TWO examples of mechanically formed sedimentary rocks. (2mks)
  4.                  
    1. Name TWO ways in which Biological weathering takes place. (2mks)
    2. Identify THREE benefits of weathering. (3mks)
  5. Draw a well labelled diagram of the water cycle. (5mks)
    SECTION B
    ANSWER QUESTION 6 AND ANY OTHER TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION.
  6. Study the map of kijabe 1:50000 (sheet 134/3) provided and answer the following questions.
    1.                    
      1. What is the map title for Kijabe?   (1mk)
      2. Give the approximate height of  Kijabe Hill. (2mks)
      3. Measure the distance of the dry weather road in the North- Western corner of the map.
        Give your answer in kilometres) (2mks)
    2. Draw a square measuring 10cm x 10cm to represent the area bounded by Easting 30 to 40 and Northing 90 to 00. On it mark and name: (5mks)
      • Escarpment
      • All weather Bound surface Road C 68
      • Forest 
      • Thicket
    3.                            
      1. Citing evidence from the map, identify the climatic conditions experienced in the area covered by the map. (4mks)
      2. Explain THREE factors which have influenced the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the Map. (6mks)
    4. Describe the relief of the area covered by the map. (5mks)
  7.                          
    1.                      
      1. Define folding. (2mks)
      2. State THREE factors that influence folding (3mks)
    2.                      
      1. Apart from nappe fold, name FOUR other types of folds. (4mks)
      2. With the aid of well – labelled diagrams, describe the formation of a nappe fold, (8mks)
    3. Explain FOUR significance of Fold Mountains to human activities. (8mks)
  8.                                
    1. Differentiate between a catchment area and a river divide. (2mks)
    2. Give FIVE characteristics of a flood plain. (5mks)
    3.                            
      1. State FIVE factors which influence the ability of a river to deposit materials. (5mks)
      2. Describe FOUR ways by which a river transports its load. (8mks)
      3. Describe superimposed drainage system. (5mks)
  9.                          
    1. Give THREE ways in which the shape of the landmasses may influence movement of the Ocean waters. (3mks)
    2. Distinguish between constructive waves and destructive waves. (2mks)
    3. Describe the following processes of wave erosion along the coas5t.
      1. Abrasion/corrosion. (3mks)
      2. Solution/corrosion. (3mks)
      3. Hydraulic action. (3mks)
    4. The diagram below shows a wave deposition feature.
      9 utfauygdada
      1. Identify the feature labelled P. (1mk)
      2. State TWO factors that favour the formation of the feature named in (i) above. (2mks)
    5. Students from Gede secondary school went out for a field study on Coastal landforms.
      1. State THREE objectives for their study. (3mks)
      2. Give THREE preparations they made for their study. (3mks)
      3. Identify TWO methods they might have used to collect information before the actual field study. (2mks)
  10.                            
    1. What is soil? (2mks)
    2.                          
      1. Name THREE components of soil. (3mks)
      2. Describe how the following factors influence the formation of soil.
        • Topography (3mks)
        • Nature of the parent rock. (3mks)
    3.                        
      1. Define soil profile. (2mks)
      2. The diagram below represents a fully- developed soil profile. State the characteristics of horizon(4mks) A. 
        10 auygdada     
    4. Explain FOUR ways in which farming practices may lead to loss of soil fertility. (8mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.                                
    1. Define mass wasting. (2mks)
      • This is the movement of weathered rock materials downslope uner the influence of gravity.
    2. State THREE factors that influence mass wasting. (3mks)
      • The nature/weight of the rock materials
      • Amount of water/level of saturation
      • The gradient/slope of the land
      • The amount of rainfall/precipitation
      • Plant/vegetation cover
      • Human activities such as mining/moving trains
      • Tectonic movements/earthquake/volcanic eruptions
  2.                              
    1. Distinguish between weather and Climate. (2mks)
      • Weather refers to the atmospheric conditions of a place at a specific time while climate is the average weather conditions of a place over a long period of time.
    2. Give THREE characteristics of ITCZ. (3mks)
      • Found within the tropics
      • It is a region of low pressure belt and doldrums
      • Moves with the apparent movement of the midday sun.
      • Associated with high temperatures
      • It is a zone of convergence where NE and SE trades meet.
      • It receives high rainfall/associated with convectional rain.
  3.                      
    1. List THREE sources of sedimentary rocks. (3mks)
      • Pre-existing weathered rocks.
      • mineral compounds
      • Remains of organisms (dead plants and animals)
    2. Give TWO examples of mechanically formed sedimentary rocks. (2mks)
      • conglomerates
      • Breccia
      • Boulder clay
      • Sandstone
      • Mudstone
      • Shale
      • Clay stone
      • Siltstone
      • loess
  4.                      
    1. Name TWO ways in which Biological weathering takes place. (2mks)
      • through the action of plants
      • through the action of animals
      • through the action of people
    2. Identify THREE benefits of weathering. (3mks)
      • Weathering leads to formation of soil used in Agriculture.
      • Weathering produces other natural resources e.g clay used in brick making and pottery.
      • Weathering weakens rocks making them easier for people to exploit e.g Quarrying/mining.
      • Weathered rocks like the granitic tors are fascinating therefore act as tourist attraction.
  5. Draw a well labelled diagram of the water cycle. (5mks)
    5 aytfdtada
    Key:
    1. Condensation level
    2. Evaporation/Evapotranspiration
    3. Rain/precipitation.
    4. Surface run-off/infiltration/percolation
    5. Clouds
  6. Study the map of kijabe 1:50000 (sheet 134/3) provided and answer the following questions.
    1.                                
      1. What is the map title for Kijabe? (1mk)
        • East Africa 1:50000(Kenya)
      2. Give the approximate height of Kijabe Hill. (2mks)
        • Above 2660m and below 2680M a.s.l
      3. Measure the distance of the dry weather road in the North- Western corner of the map.
        (Give your answer in kilometres) (2mks)
        • 5.0km (+ 1)
    2. Draw a square measuring 10cm x 10cm to represent the area bounded by Easting 30 to 40 and Northing 90 to 00. On it mark and name: (5mks)
      • Escarpment
      • All weather Bound surface Road C 68
      • Forest
      • Thicket
        6 sdsdsfsf
    3.                        
      1. Citing evidence from the map, identify the climatic conditions experienced in the area covered by the map. (4mks)
        • High rainfall is experienced to the eastern part because of presence of forest/bamboo/permanent rivers.
        • Low rainfall / dry conditions to the Western part shown by scrub vegetation
        • Cool conditions shown by scrub vegetation.
        • Cool conditions shown by high altitude of contour heights above 1780m
        • Moderate rainfall to the central part covered with woodland vegetation
      2. Explain THREE factors which have influenced the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the Map. (6mks)
        • There are no/few settlements on steep slopes because it is difficult to construct houses.
        • There are many settlements around market centres due to easy access to goods and services
        • There are linear settlements along roads because of ease of movement.
        • There are many settlements on undulating lands because it is easy to construct houses.
        • There are no settlements in the plantations because the land has been set aside for cash cropping.
    4. Describe the relief of the area covered by the map. (5mks)
      • There are many hills in the area covered by the map
      • There are many river valleys in the area covered by the map
      • The land rises from the South-West towards the North
      • There are steep slopes on the slopes of Kijabe Hill
      • The highest point on the map is 2680m a.s.l while the lowest point is 1780 m. a.s.l.
  7.                    
    1.                    
      1. Define folding. (2mks)
        • This is the process of Crustal rocks distortion that causes rocks to bend upwards and downwards due to compressional forces.
      2. State THREE factors that influence folding (3mks)
        • The age of the sedimentary rocks
        • Flexibility/elasticity of the rocks
        • Strength/ intensity of compressional forces
        • Temperature within the rocks
    2.                      
      1. Apart from nappe fold, name FOUR other types of folds. (4mks)
        • Symmetrical/simple folds
        • Asymmetrical folds
        • over folds
        • Isoclinal folds
        • Recumbent folds
        • Anticlinorium folds
        • Synclinorium folds
      2. With the aid of well – labelled diagrams, describe the formation of a nappe fold, (8mks)
        ii ssffsfs
        • Earth’s crustal rocks are subjected to compressional forces.
        • Increased compressional forces lead to formation of an over fold
        • Increased compressional forces on the over fold form a recumbent fold.
        • Greater compressional forces lead to formation of a fracture along the axis of the recumbent fold to form a thrust plane.
        • Compressional forces push the upper limb over the lower limb along the thrust plane to form a nappe/an over thrust fold.
    3. Explain FOUR significance of Fold Mountains to human activities. (8mks)
      • Fold Mountains may form unique scenery that may attract tourists, encouraging tourism.
      • Windward slopes of Fold mountains receive high rainfall encouraging human settlement/farming
      • Windward slopes of fold Mts. May support the growth of forests encouraging forestry/wildlife
      • Some fold mts have exposed valuable minerals encouraging mining.
      • High rainfall on fold mts or melting ice makes sources of rivers that provided water for domestic use/ irrigation/Industrial.
  8.                            
    1. Differentiate between a catchment area and a river divide. (2mks)
      • A catchment area is an area where a river draws its water while a river divide is a boundary/ridge that separates drainage basins.
    2. Give FIVE characteristics of a flood plain. (5mks)
      • Broad and fairly level landscape
      • Made of alluvial deposits
      • Presence of meanders
      • Presence of ox-bow lakes
      • Presence of natural/ levees/raised banks
      • Presence of swamps/marshy vegetation.
    3.                      
      1. State FIVE factors which influence the ability of a river to deposit materials. (5mks)
        • A reduction in river gradient/gentle gradient
        • A decrease in the river volume
        • Nature/large amount of load
        • Presence of obstacles in the river channel
        • A wider river channel
        • When a river empties its water into a calm water body.
      2. Describe FOUR ways by which a river transports its load. (8mks)
        • Traction – The large and heavy loads of the river are rolled/dragged along the river bed
        • Saltation – fairly heavy particles/pebbles are lifted and bounce over short distances in a series of hops /jumps.
        • Suspension – fine particles such as silt/clay are lifted and maintained within the turbulence of the water/float on the surface of the water.
        • Solution – Soluble mineral salts dissolve in the river water and are carried away in solution.
      3. Describe superimposed drainage system. (5mks)
        • Discordant drainage
        • A river flows on rocks of uniform structure
        • These rocks overlie rocks of different structure
        • Once the rocks are removed through erosion
        • The river starts flowing over a new set of rocks of a different structure but maintains its original direction.
  9.                                      
    1. Give THREE ways in which the shape of the landmasses may influence movement of the Ocean waters. (3mks)
      • May change direction of flow
      • May force ocean currents to flow along the coastline of the landmass
      • May split currents into two parts and flow in different directions
    2. Distinguish between constructive waves and destructive waves. (2mks)
      • CONSTRUCTIVE WAVES: waves whose swash is more powerful than backwash leading to deposition of materials at the shore while
      • DESTRUCTIVE WAVES: waves whose backwash is more powerful than swash leading to more removal of materials/erosion from the shore than is being deposited.
    3. Describe the following processes of wave erosion along the coast.
      1. Abrasion/corrosion. (3mks)
        • When the waves break, the swash carries pebbles, sand, boulders and other rock fragments from the shore.
        • The materials are then hurled against the base of the cliff/the foot and the face of a rock by a breaking wave
        • This leads to undercutting and rocks break up.
        • Some of these materials are dragged back into the water by backwash of the wave.
        • Such materials, the heavy ones also erode by scratching , the ocean floor while the suspended materials in the backwash hit the rock face causing particles to break off.
      2. Solution/corrosion. (3mks)
        • Sea water has both corrosive and dissolving effects
        • Some oceans have coasts with soluble rocks which simply dissolve directly in ocean water
        • The dissolved minerals are carried away in solution leaving hollows/cavities in the rocks/cliffs
        • Some oceans have coasts made of rocks that react with sea water to form soluble products that are washed away by the sea water.
        • Carbon IV Oxide dissolves in sea water forming weak carbonic acid
        • This weak acid reacts with minerals in some rocks in the ocean coast i.e limestone.
      3. Hydraulic action. (3mks)
        • Erosion action caused by the force of moving water.
        • In a breaking wave large amount of water crush against the rock face/surface
        • Water continuously pound the rock face /cliff surface at intervals.
        • This weakens the rock causing it to break into small particles which are carried by water
        • As the water pounds the cliff face, it may also force air into the cracks/crevices
        • Once inside the cracks, the air becomes compressed and increases in pressure.
        • The pressure causes widening of the cracks
        • As water retreats, the pressure is suddenly released causing the trapped air to suddenly expand explosively.
        • This causes the rocks to fracture and the cracks to enlarge
        • When this process occurs repeatedly, it causes the shattering of rocks.
    4. The diagram below shows a wave deposition feature.
      9 utfauygdada
      1. Identify the feature labelled P. (1mk)
        • Off shore bar
      2. State TWO factors that favour the formation of the feature named in (i) above. (2mks)
        • Very gently sloping coasts
        • The coasts extending deep into the sea/ocean
        • Presence of sand
    5. Students from Gede secondary school went out for a field study on Coastal landforms.
      1. State THREE objectives for their study. (3mks)
        • The find out the wave erosional /depositional features at the coast.
        • To find out the importance of coastal land forms
        • To find out processes of wave transport along the coast.
      2. Give THREE preparations they made for their study. (3mks)
        • Seeking permission
        • Conducted a pre-visit
        • Prepared work schedule
        • Divided themselves into groups
        • Formulated/adjusted objectives and hypotheses.
      3. Identify TWO methods they might have used to collect information before the actual field study. (2mks)
        • Observing films/photographs in the library
        • Reading written materials about oceans/coasts from the internet.
  10.                  
    1. What is soil? (2mks)
      • Naturally occurring thin layer of loose unconsolidated materials that overlies crustal rocks and on which plants grow.
    2.                      
      1. Name THREE components of soil. (3mks)
        • Organic matter/humus
        • Inorganic matter/minerals
        • Soil water/moisture
        • Soil air/gases.
      2. Describe how the following factors influence the formation of soil.
        • Topography (3mks)
          • Gentle slopes form deep, well drained and mature soils having clear profile
          • Steep slopes are heavily eroded forming thin and immature soils
          • Valley bottoms have deposition of weathered rocks forming deep soils.
          • Low, flat lying areas are waterlogged forming poorly drained soils.
        • Nature of the parent rock. (3mks)
          • Rocks minerals determine the fertility, colour and chemical characteristics of the soil.
          • Hard rocks weather slowly taking long time for formation of soil/soft rocks weather faster to form soil.
          • Determines soil texture, coarse grained rocks form coarse grained soils/fine grained rocks from fine soils.
    3.                            
      1. Define soil profile. (2mks)
        • This is the vertical arrangement of soil in layers/horizons from the earth’s surface to the bedrock.
      2. The diagram below represents a fully- developed soil profile. State the characteristics of horizon A. (4mks)
        10 auygdada
        • Intense chemical and bacterial activities
        • Dark in colour
        • Contain humus
        • Has two layers
        • Zone of eluviation/leaching occurs
    4. Explain FOUR ways in which farming practices may lead to loss of soil fertility. (8mks)
      • Frequent Ploughing weakens the soil structure making the soil easily eroded by agents of erosion.
      • Mono cultural practices exhausts soil nutrients
      • Ploughing across contours creates channels for surface run-off encouraging soil erosion
      • Overgrazing leads to removal of vegetation over exposing soil to agents of erosion
      • Continuous irrigation cause soil nutrients to e leached making the top soil deficient of soluble minerals.

Download Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Term 2 Opener Exams 2022.


Tap Here to Download for 50/-





Join our whatsapp group for latest updates
Read 26 times Last modified on Tuesday, 28 June 2022 12:05
Print PDF for future reference