History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Term 1 Opener Exams 2023

Share via Whatsapp
  • This paper consists of three sections; A, B and C
  • Answer All the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C
  • All questions must be answered in the answer booklet provided.


  1. Define the term pre-history.                                                                                            (1 mark)
  2. Mention two importance of studying history.                                                                (2 marks)
  3. Name the first animal to be domesticated by man.                                                        (1 mark)
  4. Identify two towns in Mesopotamia that developed due to early agriculture.               (2 marks)
  5. Define the term third world country.                                                                              (1 mark)
  6. Mention two forms of trade.                                                                                          (2 marks)
  7. List any one disadvantage of using messengers in sending information.                      (1 mark)
  8. Give one reason for the collapse of Meroe town.                                                          (1 mark)
  9. Identify one early source of energy.                                                                              (1 mark)
  10. Name two sources of British constitution.                                                                     (2 marks)
  11. Name two types of democracy.                                                                                      (2 marks)
  12. Name one African country that was never colonized.                                                    (1 mark)
  13. Mention two symbols of unity in the Mwene- Mutapa Empire.                                     (2 marks)
  14. Which political party led Ghana to independence in 1957?                                            (1 mark)
  15. Name two communes where assimilation in Senegal was practiced.                             (2 marks)
  16. What was the immediate cause of World war 1 1914 -1918                                           (1 mark)
  17. Name two countries that formed the Triple Entete before World War 1.                        (2 marks)


    1. Why is Africa referred to as the “Cradle of Mankind”?                                               (3 marks)                                                                             
    2. Describe the culture of man during the New stone age.                                              (12 marks)
    1. Identify three roles of Tuaregs during the Trans-Saharan trade.                                (3 marks)                                                         
    2.  Explain the reasons for collapse of Trans- Atlantic trade.                                           (12 marks)
    1. List three reasons leading to scientific revolution.                                                     (3 marks)                                                                             
    2. Explain the reasons for slow industrialization in third world countries.                     (12 marks)
    1. Mention five economic activities of the Asante.                                                         (5 marks)                                                                             
    2. Discuss the political organization of the Buganda.                                                      (10 marks)


    1. List five reforms introduced by the Germans after the Maji Maji rebellion 1905 -1907. (5 marks)                       
    2. Explain why Samouri Toure was able to resist the French for long.                                 (10 marks)
    1. List five ways used by nationalists in South Africa in fighting Apartheid.                        (5 marks)                           
    2. Explain the factors for the rise of African nationalism after 1945.                                    (10 marks)
    1. Mention three social effects of World war 1 1914 -1918.                                                 (3 marks)                                                     
    2. Explain the long term causes of World war 1 1914 -1918.                                                 (12 marks)



  1. Define the term pre-history. (1 mark)
    • Period before invention of writing.
  2. Mention two importance of studying history. (2 marks)
    • Career Subject.
    • Understanding previous mistakes in order to better the future.
  3. Name the first animal to be domesticated by man. (1 mark)
    • The dog
  4. Identify two towns in Mesopotamia that developed due to early agriculture. (2 marks)
    • Babylon
    • Ur
    • Uruk
  5. Define the term third world country. (1 mark)
    • Developing countries and underdeveloped countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
  6. Mention two forms of trade. (2 marks)
    • Barter trade.
    • Currency trade
  7. List any one disadvantage of using messengers in sending information. (1 mark)
    • Only covered short distances.
    • Attacks by wild animals.
    • Forgetting messages.
  8. Give one reason for the collapse of Meroe town. (1 mark)
    • Desertification
    • Exhaustion of minerals- Iron
    • Rise of axum kingdom.
  9. Identify one early source of energy. (1 mark)
    • Wood
    • Wind
    • Water
  10. Name two sources of British constitution. (2 marks)
    • Statutes
    • Customs
    • Customs of parliament
    • Historical documents – Magna Carta of 1215AD
  11. Name two types of democracy. (2 marks)
    • Direct democracy
    • Representative democracy
  12. Name one African country that was never colonized. (1 mark)
    • Ethiopia and Liberia.
  13. Mention two symbols of unity in the Mwene- Mutapa Empire. (2 marks)
    • Mwari Cult
    • Royal Fire
  14. Which political party led Ghana to independence in 1957? (1 mark)
    • Convention Peoples’ Party (CPP)
  15. Name two communes where assimilation in Senegal was practiced. (2 marks)
    • Dakar
    • St. Louis
    • Goree
    • Rufisque
  16. What was the immediate cause of World war 1 1914 -1918 (1 mark)
    • Sarajevo assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinard and his wife Sofie by Garvillo Princip.
  17. Name two countries that formed the Triple Entete before World War 1. (2 marks)
    • Britain
    • France
    • Russia


    1. Why is Africa referred to as the “Cradle of Mankind”? (3 marks)
      • Evidence from archaeologists’ show that the earliest apes first evolved around lake and rift valley areas. And if man evolved from apes, then the first man must have appeared in east Africa.
      • The savanna landscapes found in east Africa favored evolution while the conditions elsewhere (forests and deserts) Were unfavourable.
      • The bones and weapons and tools which archaeologists are finding are proofs to this. These findings are widespread in Olduvai Gorge, Olorgesaillie, and Ngorongoro and around lakes of east Africa.
      • The discovery of remains of early hominids and their material culture which form a pattern of human evolution prove this.
    2. Describe the culture of man during the New stone age. (12 marks)
        • Man became a Very skilled toolmaker-they made tools known as microliths- (small piece of sharp stone tool). For example, a crescent or a lunate which had a straight sharp cutting edge and a curved blunted back. Their weapons include stone axes, knives, spears, harpoons, wooden bows, and sharp, stone tipped arrows, hooks, needles, and bone fish hooks. Neanderthals were the first to create the pointed tip on hunting spears and harpoons
        • Earlier sapiens used caves as their homes instead of building one. Later, they made permanent homes that looked like tents or tepees, out of tree branches, grass, mammoth bones, and animal skins. They used or made some sort of paint to use on their cave paintings.
        • Man domesticated plants and animals though he continued to hunt and gather. Man changed as from Nomadic lifestyle to settled stationary lifestyle; i.e sedentary Population also increased due to balanced diet and adequate food
        • Due to settled life and improved settlement, rules and laws were set up as a basis of government. Some people also specialized in leadership, religious activities as well as making of crafts.
        • Man’s language and religious beliefs developed as a result of depending on natural forces like rain. They began to ponder over issues like life and death. Evidence is found at Hyrax Hill and Njoro river Cave where human fossil remains were found buried with items such as tools and seeds or foodThe practice of burying someone with his possessions implied a belief in life after death. Neanderthals were the first to bury their dead. They also seemed to have a conception of an afterlife as shown by the actual burial site at La Ferrassie, France, with seven tombs including a man, a woman and several children’s graves lying side by side.
        • Humans specialized in crafts such as basketry, pottery and later smelting Evidenced by this horse’ head carving to the right.
    1. Identify three roles of Tuaregs during the Trans-Saharan trade. (3 marks)
      • Provided security to traders
      • Guided them through the deserts
      • Maintained some water points like the oases
      • Provided credit facilities.
    2. Explain the reasons for collapse of Trans- Atlantic trade. (12 marks)
      • Rise of humanitarians in Europe such as Christians and scholars condemned it on moral grounds. The missionaries wanted it to be stopped because they wanted good conditions for the spread of Christianity. The formation of the humanitarian movements in England aimed at stopping all kinds of cruelty including slave trade, flogging of soldiers and child labour.
      • Industrialization in Britain was one of the main forces behind the abolition .E.g. Britain industrialists urged its abolition because they wanted Africans to be left in Africa so that Africa can be a source of raw materials for their industries, market for European manufactured goods and a place for new investment of surplus capital.
      • Formation of Anti-slavery movement and the abolitionist movement in 1787. Its chairman was Granville Sharp and others like Thomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce who gathered facts and stories about the brutality of slave trade and slavery to arouse public opinion in Britain.
      • The attainment of independence by USA in 1776 left Britain in a dilemma since she had no colonies where she would take the slaves to work.
      • The French revolution of 1789 and the American revolution of 1776 emphasized liberty, equality and fraternity (brotherhood) of all human beings. As a result, people began to question whether anyone had a right to deprive fellow man of his liberty when he had done wrong.
      • The British desire to protect their national interests, British planters wanted slave trade stopped to avoid competition with other European planters .This is because other planters were producing cheaper sugar, British sugar accumulated hence the need to stop over production.
      • The closure of the American slave market after the defeat of the South American states in the American civil war of 1865 left the slave dealers with no market for their slaves.
      • The rise of leading London economists with new ideas e.g. Prof. Adam Smith(challenged the economic arguments which were the basis of slave trade when he argued convincingly that hired labour is cheaper and more productive than slave labour, Jean Jacqueus Rousseau spread the idea of personal liberty and equality of all men.
      • Influential abolitionists like William Wilberforce (a British member of parliament) urged the British government to legislate against the slave trade in her colonies. They in turn influenced public opinion against slave trade.
      • The ship owners stopped transporting slaves from Africa and began transporting raw materials directly from Africa and America to Europe, which led to a decline in slave trade.
    1. List three reasons leading to scientific revolution. (3 marks)
      • Discovery of the New World. Exploration/conquest leading to discovery of new plant/animal life. Traditional link between navigation and astronomy + great advances made by Portuguese navigators fueled an interest in learning more about the stars
      • Invention of the Printing Press, allowed for rapid dissemination of scientific knowledge. Numerous books and newsletters were in circulation keeping people informed of science
      • Rivalry among Nation-States. Constant warfare among nation-states pushed for scientific development by placing an importance on technology, or applied science. Powerful leaders of nation-states funded scientific development.
      • Renaissance / birth of knowledge. During this period, Human interest in the classical world increased. Renaissance time made people to develop interest in research/ learning.
      • The need to solve their daily life problems like shortages, disease etc. necessity is the mother of all inventions.
      • Financial support for governments and individuals. Governments and individuals financed scientific research.
      • Religion failed to answer all questions. This sometimes betrayed man’s belief in supernatural power thus emphasizing research.
    2. Explain the reasons for slow industrialization in third world countries. 12 marks)
      • Competition from goods manufactured in the developed countries; the developed nations produce goods of high quality than those manufactured by the Indian industries.
      • High population. The government spends a lot of revenue in developing agriculture to feed her people.
      • High poverty levels
      • Lack of efficient communication and transportation infrastructure hence poor movement of goods and labour.
      • Natural calamities e.g. drought and floods that destroy raw materials for industries.
      • Political conflicts
      • long periods of economic sanctions imposed by the United Nations
      • There were rampant industrial strikes in the countries.
      • The HIV and AIDS scourge has ravaged the country’s labour force thus seriously undermining the industrial efforts.
    1. Mention five economic activities of the Asante. (5 marks)
      • Crop farming- growing crops like yams, vegetables and fruits.
      • Livestock keeping like cattle.
      • gathering of Kola nuts and hunting for game meat from the forest to supplement their diet.
      • They practiced iron working and made crafts such as baskets and pots.
      • participated in the trade providing gold, slaves and ivory in exchange for cotton, cloth, guns and gunpowder. They also provided middlemen and porters during the trade.
      • Discuss the political organization of the Buganda. (10 marks)
      • Buganda kingdom had a highly centralized monarchy under the kabaka who enjoyed absolute powers. His position was hereditary.
      • The Kabaka’s Court was the nerve centre of the Baganda community.
      • All symbols of Royal authority were kept in the court. E.g. the throne (Namulondo), royal Drums, spears and stools.
      • There was a Lukiko which advised the kabaka and was the final court. It comprised 69 members who were nominated by the kabaka (positions were not hereditary). It made laws and debated issues concerning the kingdom. It also directed tax collection and planned expenditure, it acted as the final court of appeal, and it represented the needs of the people to the kabaka. It helped the kabaka in general administration. It checked the activities of government.
      • The kingdom was divided into counties (Ssaza) and sub-counties.
      • Each county was under Ssaza chiefs whose position was hereditary initially before the kabaka began to appoint them as a means of making them accountable.
      • Each Ssaza was divided into a gombolola headed by a gombolola chief, who maintained law and order and collected taxes.
      • The gombololas were further divided into smaller sub-divisions called miluka each under a miluka chief.
      • The miluka was divided into kisoko. The smallest administrative unit among the Baganda was the village council. The Abatongole appointed by the kabaka, governed the vassal states.


    1. List five reforms introduced by the Germans after the Maji Maji rebellion 1905 -1907. (5 marks)
      • Corporal punishment was abolished by the German administration. Those settlers who mistreated their workers were punished.
      • Forced labour for settler farms was abolished.
      • Communal cotton growing was stopped and Africans were to plant their own cotton and get profit from it.
      • Better educational and medical services for the Africans were introduced.
      • Africans were involved in administration of the region as Akidas and Jumbes.
      • Newspapers that incited settlers against Africans were censured.
      • Kiswahili became an official language.
      • A colonial department of the German government was set up in 1907 to investigate and monitor the affairs of the German East Africa.
      • The new governor rejected extra taxation of Africans.
      • Colonial administration in Tanganyika was now tailored to suit the Africans.
    2. Explain why Samouri Toure was able to resist the French for long. (10 marks)
      • He had established military workshops with a trained cadre of artisans whom he used to repair and manufacture his own weapons. This guaranteed regular supply of weapons during the resistance.
      • He himself was a courageous fighter, a greater organizer and a military tactician and he personally commanded his army on the battlefield.
      • His adoption of the Scorched Earth Policy as he mobilized the entire population to retreat left the French to starve and delay their advance.
      • The success witnessed in trade enabled him to acquire guns and horses from the north, which were important in the resistance.
      • Through trade and subsequent tribute collection, he obtained adequate wealth, which he used to maintain a large army.
      • He had a large strong and well-organized army of 35,000 men, which was a formidable force for the French.
      • He used diplomacy in dealing with the French to buy time to reorganize and strengthen his army, and to negotiate with the British in Sierra Leone to guarantee regular supply of guns.
      • French soldiers were ignorant of the strange land they were fighting in and were faced with further problem of tropical disease.
      • Some of his soldiers had served in the French colonial army and were thus familiar with the French tactics.
      • He used Mandinka nationalism and Islam to unify the army.
      • Many of Samori’s soldiers believed that they were fighting a Jihad (holy war) and therefore fought with determination.
    1. List five ways used by nationalists in South Africa in fighting Apartheid. (5 marks)
      • They used force to fight for their independence.
      • mass media to articulate their grievances, spread propaganda and mobilize the masses.
      • Riots e.g. the Soweto riots of 1976.
      • There were demonstrations against Press Laws in 1960 at Sharpeville leading to massacres.
      • Guerilla fighters trained in Algeria, Ghana e.t.c carried out acts of sabotage like bombing strategic installations and power plants.
      • The role of the clergy .e.g. Desmond Tutu who bitterly campaigned worldwide against apartheid.
      • Use of diplomacy and negotiations to convince the whites about the futility of apartheid policy. Use of slogans such as Freedom Charter (1955) which proclaimed south Africa belonged to all races and called for political, social and economic equality
      • They sent petitions, delegations to international forum.
      • They formed political parties e.g. ANC, PAC, UDF and trade union activism to pressurize the government to change.
      • They used job boycotts and strikes.
      • They organized defiance campaigns and demonstrations in the streets to provoke the police to arrest them.
      • They formed underground movements after the Umkhonto we Sizwe.
      • Pressure from youth groups e.g. Steve Biko formed the Black Consciousness Movement as a weapon to counter oppression through organized strikes.
      • Africans serving jail terms organized hunger strikes.
    2. Explain the factors for the rise of African nationalism after 1945. (10 marks)
      • The exposure of Africans to severe economic exploitation during the colonial period. For example land alienation in the Kenya Highlands, in southern Rhodesian, Algeria and South Africa which was accompanied with forced labour where the labourers faced mistreatment.
      • Africans were fed up of heavy and harsh taxation by the Europeans. They were exposed to heavy taxation, ranging from hut tax to breast tax in Belgian Congo.
      • Africans were fed up with the gradual destruction of their culture by the whites.
      • Missionaries totally dismissed the age-old African traditions as being barbaric. This explains why independent schools and churches sprung up in central Kenya.
      • The introduction of racial discrimination to go hand in hand with colonialism. All the best social amenities in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Kenya were reserved for the whites. The Europeans equated the black colour with low intelligence, uncivilized and a backward race.
      • Africans resented colonialism because it interfered with their political institutions. The colonial rulers disregarded traditional rulers, appointing their own puppets in their place.
      • The Acquisition of western education by many Africans by 1945 enabled them to articulate their grievances more forcefully and to understand political developments outside Africa.
      • The return of the ex-servicemen after the second world war which exposed the myth of the white supremacy making Africans ready to fight them. Moreover, the colonial government failed to reward African ex-soldiers to embitter them more.
      • The change of government from Conservative to Labour Party in Britain in 1946 stimulated a new attitude in Britain towards decolonization. This motivated African nationalists.
      • The rise of nationalism in Asia, culminating into the granting of independence to India and Pakistan in 1947 aroused great confidence among Africans who worked closely with Asian nationalists like Jawaharlal Nehru, the India Prime Minister.
      • The rise of Pan-Africanism in Africa after the 1945 Manchester conference contributed to the new demands for political independence in Africa Many African élites attended the conference which served as a source of awakening.
      • The formation of the UNO and the pressure it exerted on the European powers to decolonize helped the Africans in their course.
      • The emergence of United States and the Soviet Union as super powers in the world contributed to the decolonization process. USA was keen to see Britain and France grant independence to their subjects in the world in order to secure new markets.
      • The signing of the Atlantic Charter in 1941 by Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt which demanded that when the WWII ended, all subject peoples should enjoy the right to self-determination.
    1. Mention three social effects of World war 1 1914 -1918.   (3 marks)
      • Mass loss of lives.
      • Mass suffering. I.e increase in orphans and widows.
      • Improvement in the art of surgery.
    2. Explain the long term causes of World war 1 1914 -1918. (12 marks)
      1. The system of Alliances
        • An alliance is an agreement made between two or more countries to give each other help if it is needed. A number of alliances had been signed by countries between the years 1879 and 1914. For example, the Dual Alliance signed by Germany with Austriam Hungary in 1879 and later joined by Italy in 1882 to become the triple Alliance. This system led to the division of Europe into two antagonistic power blocs. It led to fear and suspicion between nations. It transformed local disputes into a general conflict. The Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy were directly opposed by the Entente powers of France and Russia and later included Great Britain to form the Triple Entente in 1907.
      2. Imperialism
        • Imperialism is when a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule. By 1900, the British Empire extended over five continents and France had control of large areas of Africa. With the rise of industrialism, countries needed new markets. The amount of lands' owned by Britain and France increased their rivalry with Germany who had entered the scramble to acquire colonies late and only had small areas of Africa.
      3. Economic rivalry.
        • According to Marxism, the highest form of capitalism would ultimately lead to an inevitable war through economic rivalry. In the late 19th century, all European powers had industrialized or had started. Therefore, to match the needs of economy and industry, nations sought to expand their territory through imperialism in order to gain raw mater-ials and markets. This then led to the clash of imperial interest between nations and ultimately led to conflict and war.
      4. Militarism
        • Militarism means that the army and military forces are given a high profile by the government. The growing European divide had led to an arms race between the main countries. The armies of both France and Germany had more than doubled between 1870 and 1914 and there was fierce competition between Britain and Germany for mastery of the seas. The British had introduced the 'Dreadnought', an effective battleship, in 1906. The Germans soon followed suit introducing their own battle-ships. The German, Von Schlieffen also drew up a plan of action that involved attacking France through Belgium if Russia made an attack on Germany.
      5. Nationalism
        • Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one;s country. The Congress of Vienna, held after Napoleon's exile to Elba, aimed to sort out problems in Europe. Delegates from Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia decided upon a new Europe that left both Germany and Italy as divided states. Strong nationalist elements led to the re-unification of Italy in 1861 and Germany in 1871. The settlement at the end of the Franco-Prussian war left France angry at the loss of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany and keen to regain their lost territory. Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and Serbia were home to differing nationalist groups, all of whom wanted freedom from the states in which they lived.
      6. Moroccan Crisis
        • In 1904 Morocco had been given to France by Britain, but the Moroccans wanted their independence. In 1905, Germany announced her support for Moroccan indepe-ndence. War was narrowly avoided by a conference which allowed France to retain possession of Morocco. However, in 1911, the Germans were again protesting against French possession of Morocco. Britain supported France and Germany was persuaded to back down for part of French Congo.
      7. Bosnian Crisis
        • In 1908, Austria-Hungary took over the former Turkish province of Bosnia. This angered Serbians who felt the province should be theirs. Serbia threatened Austria Hungary with war. Russia, allied to Serbia, mobilized its forces. Germany, allied to Austria-Hungary mobilized its forces and prepared to threaten Russia. War was avoided when Russia backed down. There was, however, war in the Balkans between

Download History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 4 Term 1 Opener Exams 2023.

Tap Here to Download for 50/-

Why download?

  • ✔ To read offline at any time.
  • ✔ To Print at your convenience
  • ✔ Share Easily with Friends / Students

Join our whatsapp group for latest updates
Get on WhatsApp Download as PDF
Subscribe now

access all the content at an affordable rate
Buy any individual paper or notes as a pdf via MPESA
and get it sent to you via WhatsApp


What does our community say about us?

Join our community on:

  • easyelimu app
  • Telegram
  • facebook page
  • twitter page
  • Pinterest