- Distinguish between Diabetes mellitus and Diabetes insipidus
Diabetes mellitus is a condition/disease caused by failure of the pancrease to produce adequate insulin hormone; leading to excess glucose levels in the body some of which is released in urine while diabetes insipidus is a condition caused by failure/inability of the kidney tubules to control the amount of water in urine as a result of a defect in production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) leading to production of more dilute urine;
- Explain how mammalian bodies regulate glucose and protein levels in their blood
When glucose level is high (above 90mg/100cm3), the brain sends impulses to the (β cells of islets of Langerhans) pancrease cells; to release insulin hormone; the hormone stimulates liver cells to convert the excess glucose into glycogen and fats for storage in the liver and muscle cells; increases the oxidation of glucose in respiration to yield water energy and carbon (IV) oxide/increases metabolism in the body; this leads to a fall in blood glucose to normal level;
However, when the glucose level falls below normal (below 90mg/100cm3); the brain sends impulses to the (α cells of the islets of Langerhans) pancrease cells; which
are stimulated to release glucagon hormone; the hormone stimulates liver cells to convert the stored glycogen and fats back to glucose; stimulates the conversion of amino acids to glucose; and stops the oxidation of glucose in the body cells to avail more glucose; the glucose formed is released to the bloodstream causing a rise of blood glucose level to normal;
The level of plasma proteins such as prothrombin, globulins, albumins and fibrinogen; which play a major role in osmoregulation and blood clotting; are controlled by
the liver; which manufactures them using the amino acids found in the liver; when their levels reduce, more is produced; but when the level is high, less of the proteins is produced in the liver; excess amino acids are deaminated; as the body is not able to store them; the process involves removal of an amino group from an amino acid molecule; the amino group enters the ornithine cycle; where it is combined with carbon (IV) oxide to form urea; which is excreted in urine through the kidneys;
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