- Pillars of Islam
- Swalat read Q: 4:103
- Meaning of Zakat
- Definition of Zakat
- Differences between Zakat and Sadaqah
- Conditions for Zakat Payment
- Differences between Zakat-ul-Fitr and Zakat-ul-Maal
- Condition for Distribution of Zakat
- Items on which Zakat is payable
- Items on which Zakat is not payable
- Recipients of Zakat
- Importance of Zakat
- Differences between Zakat and Tax
- The Role Played by Zakat in Promoting Integrity
- There are five pillars of Islam which are the frame work of a Muslim life.
- These are the basic beliefs that shape the Muslim thought, deeds and society.
- The word Shahada is an Arabic term which means to testify or to bear witness.
- Literal meaning: Shahada is a special sentence: La illaha ila Allah wa Muhammadun rasoolollah (There is no (other) Lord except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
- (Lailaha illa-Allahu Muhammad rasul Allah)
- Shahada is the first pillar of Islam which consists of two main parts.
- The first part of the shahada says: (Lailaha illa-Allahu Muhammad rasul Allah)
- That there is non worthy of worship except Allah.
- This part declares the absolute unity of Allah, his oneness as the only one who deserves to be worshipped.
- Muslims are not supposed to render complete obedience for no human nor material object possess power and authority equal to Him.
- It is the gateway way to Islam.
- The second part of the shahada says:Muhammadun rasoolollah Muhammad(P.B.U.H) is His messenger.
- The Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) as the messenger of Allah.
- His being mentioned in the Shahada confirms that he is the universal and final prophet sent to all mankind.
- Mankind has the obligations in following the teachings and commandments of prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H).
- They have a duty to adhere to the teachings in order to seek Allah Pleasure although he is the last in the ladder of the prophets of Allah.
- Shahada makes a believer to surrender all his/her life to God. This makes a believer to fulfill God’s command.
- It produces in a believer a high degree of confidence and respect towards His creator.
- Instills in a believer feeling of contentment for he/she will know that Allah(S.W.T) willtake care of all his needs.
- It makes a believer to be brave and courageous as he will know that it is Allah who owns his life.
- It recognizes and re-affirms that prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) is the chosen messenger of Allah (S.W.T)
- It makes believers develop trust and heed to the guidelines of the prophet.
- It gives an opportunity to the believers to know how Allah (S.W.T) has honoredProphet Mohammad. (P.B.U.H).
- Gives Allah the absolute right to be worshipped.
- It affirms that prophet Muhammad(P.B.U.H) is the chosen messenger of Allah(S.W.T)
- When uttered by a Muslim on his death will lead one to enter paradise.
- As-Salah: In the Arabic language it means prayer (Invocation).
- Salat, which is the second pillar of Islam, may be defined as a special a process of worshipping, which includes supplication of duas, glorification of Allah’s name, prostrations in order to seek blessings and forgiveness.
- In this process ofworship, there are certain known and prescribed invocations and acts systematically performed starting with Takbeer (saying Allah Akbar;God is the Great) which ending with Tasleem (saying: as-salaam ‘alaykum wa Rahmatul-lahi wabarakaatuh; may All Peace, Mercy, and Blessings be upon you)
- There are two types of swalat, obligatory and the voluntary prayers.
- These are prayers compulsory for every Muslim under the obligation by the shariah to perform them.
- Failure to perform them pens one to punishment in the hereafter.
- Allah(S.W.T) says in
“And establish regular prayers at the two ends of the day and at the approaches of the night those things that are good remove those that evil:But that the word of the rememberance to th who remember(their Lord)” [Q:11:114]
- Let us now look at the obligatory prayers and the times prescribed for there performance accordin Islamic Sharia.
- This is the morning prayer which consists of two rakats(units).
- It’s time occurs when a vertical pillar of faint light appears in the east and spreads on the horizon,distinct from the darkness of night.
- This is just before sunrise.
- Quran recitation is loud for the two rakaats.
- This is the early afternoon prayer.
- It consist of four raka’at (units) and it’s time occurs after the sun has gone (passed over head) after reaching the highest point in the sky.)
- This prayer is said in the late afternoon.
- It consist of four raka’at(units)
- This is the sunset prayer.
- It consists of three raka’at(units).
- It has the shortest duration which starts immediately after the sun has set.
- Quran recitation is loud for the first two raka’ats.
- This prayer is performed immediately after Maghrib prayer.
- It consists of four raka’at in which the first two Raka’at are recited aloud.
- Its time extends to the later part of the night.
- These are obligatory prayers which must be performed by atleast one muslim in the community.
- If it is performed by a single Muslim, then the obligation is lifted from the others.
- Incase it’s not performed by one at all the whole society gets sin.e.g Swalatul Janaza.
- These are prayers that are not compulsory for the muslims.
- They are performed to follow the exemplary teachings of the prophet(P.B.U.H) and are therefore recommended.
- Some of the sunnah prayers are as follows:
I. Tahhiyatul Masjid.
- The prayer of tahhiyat al-masjid (greeting of the masjid) is a confirmed sunna once a day, and recommended thereafter.
- It consists of two rakaats and is best preformed before sitting down even though the sunna is not lifted if one does sit first.
- One can intend this prayer along with their sunna or fard if they do not have time to pray it.
- One should not pray the tahhiyat al-masjid during a disliked time.
- This prayer is performed at night and it is recommended that it be performed after first going to sleep for some part of the evening.
- Its time falls between the prayer times of the isha'a prayers and the Fajr prayers.
- It is also recommended that the prayers be done in the last third of the night.
- Muslims believe that the reward is greater for those who do this prayer at a later time.
- The Tahajjud prayer consists of a minimum of two rakaat and the maximum number is unlimited.
- It's reported about the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) that he said: "Adhere to night prayer, for it is the habit of the righteous before you, and a means of drawing nearer to your Lord; it is an expiation for sins, and a deterrent from wrongdoing." [Tirmidhi & al-Hakim]
- Tarawih is an optional prayer in that can be done only during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadhan.
- This prayer can be done alone, in a group, at home, or in a mosque or other public meeting area it.
- Typically, Muslims gather together and perform tarawih as a group.
- Others may meet in their local mosque, a meeting hall, or even in an outdoor field.
- The minimum number of raka'ah of Tarawih is eight with a maximum of Twenty.
- It is also customary for the Imam in the main mosque to recite the entire Qur'an during the fasting month by reading approximately one section per day.
- This practice of reading the Qur'an completely is known as khatm (complete recitation).
IV. Witr prayer
- Witr prayer starts after a person prays the Isha prayer until dawn.
- Evidence for this is that the Prophet (P.B.U.H) said:
“Allah has prescribed for you a prayer (by which He may increase your reward), which is Witr; Allah has enjoined it for you during the time between ‘Isha’ prayer until dawn begins.” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi)
- It is better to pray the witr prayer in the final third of the night because prayer at this time is witnessed by the angels.
- However, if a person fears that he will not get up at the last third of the night then he or she can pray it straight in the beginning third so that he or she does not miss the prayer.
- One should make the night prayers and odd number and thus the Witr prayer is an odd number of rakkats.
- It may consist of one, three, five, seven, nine or any other odd number.
- Most Muslims perform three rakaats.
- If you are praying the witr prayer and dawn is approaching then you should pray one rakkat so that you can pray witr before the start of dawn.
V. Swalatu-l Istikhara
- Istikhara is Arabic word which means to ask Allah to guide one to the right thing.
- Allah (S.W.T) provides an answer whenever a Muslim is in such a difficult situation.
- This is by offering a two rakaat prayer to seek guidance.
- Sa’ d ibn Waqas reported that the prophet(P.B.U.H) said, “Istikharah (seeking guidance from Allah) is one of the distinct favors (of Allah) upon man, and a good fortune for the son of Adam is to be pleased with the judgment of Allah. And a misfortune of the son of Adam is his failure to make istikharah (seeking Allah’s guidance), and a misfortune for the son of Adam is his displeasure with the judgment of Allah.”
- After completing the two-rak’ats, one praises Allah (S.W.T) and sends salutations to the prophet (P.B.U.H) and recites the following supplication as narreted by Jabir.
“(O Allah! I ask guidance from Your knowledge, and Power from Your Might and I ask for Your great blessings. You are capable and I am not. You know and I do not and You know the unseen. O Allah! If You know that this job is good for my religion and my subsistence and in my Hereafter–(or said: If it is better for my present and later needs)–then You ordain it for me and make it easy for me to get, and then bless me in it, and if You know that this job is harmful to me in my religion and subsistence and in the Hereafter–(or said: If it is worse for my present and later needs)–then keep it away from me and let me be away from it. And ordain for me whatever is good for me, and make me satisfied with it).” (Sahih Bukhari)
- This is the prayer of salutation to the mosque and is performed upon entering the mosque.
- It consists of two rakaats.
- In case a person who was sitting inside the mosque went out of it, and then returned to it after a short period of time then he is not required to perform the prayer of salutation to the mosque.
- However, if he performs this prayer he will be rewarded for doing so.
VII. Swalatu-l Dhuhaa
- It is the mid-morning Prayer.
- Its time starts when sun rises to the height of a spear and ends close to midday.
- The best time is when mid-morning heat has intensified.
- The minimum number of rakaat is two but can be prayed upto eight rakaats.
VIII. Qabliyya and Baadiya prayers
- These prayers are offered before or after the Fardh prayers.
- The number of rakaats varies from one prayer to another.
- This can be illustrated by the table below:
Fardh swalat Number of rakaat before Number of rakaat after Fajr 2 None Dhuhr 2 2 Asr None None Maghrib None None Isha 2 2
- The term twahara is Arabic word which means cleanliness.
- It is used in Islam to imply a state of ritual purity.
- This is a requirement in the observance of the acts of worship.
- Ritual purity is attained through three ways;
- Ghusl(ritual bath)
- tayammum(dry ablution)
- It’s a form of a ritual bath which involves the washing of a whole body.
- The following conditions makes it compulsory for a muslim to perform ghusl:
- After sexual intercourse
- After completing menstruation(Heidh)
- Immediately after giving birth.
- When a person dies it’s the duty of the Muslims to wash the body.
- After completing the post birth bleeding(Nifas)
- Ejaculation of sperms when one is asleep or awake.
- There are other instances when the ritual Bath becomes optional.
- Before going for Friday prayers.
- Before going for the two Idd prayers (Idd ul adha and Idd ul Fitr)
- After washing the deadbody.
- When a non Muslim converts to Islam.
- Before performing prayers for the rain.
- Before praying holy city of Makka.
- Before standing at Arafat during Hajj.
- Before going round the Kaaba.
- Before running between the two hillocks of swafa and marwa(Sa’i)
- Before entering the Holy city of Madina.
- Before throwing pebbles at Mina during the three days.
Steps of performing ghusl.
- There are several essential steps that are followed in performing ghusl.
- These steps are also referred to as fardh or integral steps and must be followed for ones Ghusl to be valid.
- These include the following:
- Niyyat (Intention). You must declare your intention of cleansing to seek Allah’s pleasure and to perform the acts of worship.
- Removal of impurities. These are those substances that block the penetration of water into the skin.
- Ensuring that water reaches all the parts of the body from the head to the toe.
Sunna acts of Ghusl
- Apart from the Fardh steps, we have some acts that are included in the performance of ghusl but are not compulsory.
- These are termed as sunnah or optional acts of ghusland include the following:
- Starting with the basmallah
- Performing udhu.
- Washing the whole body three times.
- Passing the hands all over the body.
- Starting from the right then left.
- Reciting a dua after Ghusl.
Acts forbidden while in the State of Janaba(impurity)
- Even though the performance of the acts of Ibada earns a Muslim reward, in the state of ritual impurity, it is forbidden for a muslim to indulge in the following:
- Recitation of Quran
- Performing of prayers
- Entering the mosque
- Touching the Quran
- Performing Tawaff during Hajj.
- In addition,a woman in menstruation is forbidden to perfom the following acts:
- Recitation of the Quran.
- Holding or touching Quran.
- Performing swalat
- Observing any tipes of fast whether Fardh or Sunnah.
- Having sexual relations with the husband.
- Entering the mosque.
- To be divorced.
- To perform tawwaf.
- When you go to any mosque, you will notice people sitting or standing where there are water points o taps performing some preparations for prayers(swalat).
- The reason is for purification.
- Wudhu therefore is an is an Arabic word which means ablution.
- It involves washing ones face, hands, head and feet in order to perform the acts of ibada.
Essential steps of wudhu
- These are fardh or obligatory acts.
- They must be observed by however is performing wudhu.
- Failure to observe any of them will consequencially render the process incomplete and your prayers null and void.
- A muslim must therefore follow the following steps while perfoming Wudhu:
- Making the intention to perform udhu’.
- Washing the face from the top of the forehead to the chin and between the two ear lobes.
- Washing both arms up to and including the elbows.
- Wiping a part of the head with wet hands.
- Washing both feet up to and including the ankles
- Following the prescribed sequence without inter-changing any step.
Optional steps of performing wudhu
- In the performance of Wudhu, we have some steps that we observe and have not been mentioned IN the above essentials.
- The perfomance of these acts is considered as following the example of our Prophet (P.B.U.H).
- They are referred to as the sunna acts of wudhu and include the following:
- Reciting: “Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim” (in the Name of God, the All-Merciful, and the All- Compassionate) before you start taking wudhu.
- Brushing of the teeth.
- Washing the palms up to the wrists three times, including the parts between the fingers.
- Cleaning the mouth with a brush or a finger and gargling three times.
- Rinsing the nostrils three times.
- Passing ones wet fingers through the beards.
- To run water through ones fingers and toes.
- Performing each act three times.
- Starting with the right hand side before the left.
- Wiping the whole head and the back of the neck
- Wiping the ears in and out.
- Taking the entire udhu at once without breaking.
- Reciting dua during and after Wudhu.
- Performing the acts systematically.
- Washing the parts one after the other without pausing, so that no part dries up before completion of wudhu.
- Facing the direction of Qibla during the performance of wudhu.
Recommended acts (mustahab) of wudhu
- Reciting the kalima(shahada)after ablution.
- Avoiding worldly talk during the time for wudhu.
- Avoiding extravagance (wasting water) during ablution.
- Choosing a clean place for the performance of wudhu.
Nullifiers of wudhu
- Wudhu is meant for perfomance of the acts of worship.
- A Muslim preparing for prayers can perform wudhu and sustain it for the swalat of the rest of the day.
- However, there are certain acts that invalidate wudhu (often referred to as "breaking wudhu").
- It is therefore important to note that the absence of wudhu will imply that those intended acts of worship will not be valid.
- We must therefore have the knowledge of the things that will‘break wudhu’. These are what we refer to as nulliers.
- The following are among the acts that nullify wudhu’:
- Coming out of either solid, liquid or gas/wind from the two private parts (front and back)
- Emission of blood, pus or yellow matter from a wound, boil, pimple, or something similar to such an extent that it flows beyond the wound’s mouth.
- Vomiting a mouthful of matter.
- Physical contact for pleasure between men and women without any obstacle (e.g., clothes).
- Loss of consciousness through sleep, drowsiness, and any such condition that may affect the proper functioning of the mind.
- Temporary insanity, fainting, hysteria, or intoxication.
- Touching the private parts with bare hands(without any barrier)
- Supposing you were travelling and the time of prayer finds you at a place where there is no water, How would you purify yourself for Swalat?
- Taking into consideration that swalat is a must for a muslim and is performed at prescribed times;
- Allah (S.W.T) has given a solution to such an eventuality in the Quran.
- Almighty Allah (S.W.T) says: “…But if you are ill,or on a journey,or one of you comes from offices of nature,or you have been in contact with women and you find no water,then take for yourselves clean sand or earth and rub therewith your faces and hands.Allah does not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean…”[Q:5:6]
- In reference to this verse, the use of clean sand for purification in preparation for swalat is referred to as tayammum.
- Even though the word tayammum literally means an aim or a purpose, in this context it refers to dry ablution where clean sand is used to wipe the face and the limbs as an alternative of wudhu’.
- Hudhaifa (R.A) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H) said: “And the soil of the earth has been made for us as a means with which to purify ourselves (for prayer) when we cannot find water.” (Muslim)
Reasons for performing Tayammum
- Even though the sharia allows the use of pure sand for purification,it is only permissible on specific occasions.
- These occasions may be necessitated by the following reasons:
- In case there is scarcity of water. This is when there is acute shortage of water or the available water is insufficient for performing ablution.
- For health reasons. If one is injured or ill and fears that use of water will worsen the condition.
- If the water is too cold and it is likely to cause physical harm to the user.
- If the process of getting water is dangerous or life threatening.
- When the available water is reserved for domestic use.
- Fear of missing a prayer by the time one gets to the source of water.
- If the the available water is impure.
Conditions of Tayammum
- When performing Tayammum,you should consider the following three conditions:
- One must use clean sand.
- It should be performed at the time of that particular prayer.
- The tayammum of one prayer ends at the termination of that particular prayer e.g one cannot use tayammum of Dhuhr for another prayer.
Essential steps of Tayammum.
- Besides the three conditions of perfoming Tayammum,the following steps should be followed while in the actual process:
- You must make the intention of performing tayammum.
- Strike the first heap of pure soil lightly with the palms of both hands and passing the palms over the face one time.
- Strike the second heap of pure soil with one’s palms and rubbing the right and left arms alternately from the fingertips to the elbows.
- Follow the order above.
Nullifiers of Tayammum.
- All that nullifies wudhu will also nullify tayammum.
- As soon as the cause for performing it is removed (i.e., the sick person recovers or pure water is found).
- Performance of fardh prayer. A Muslim is not supposed to perform two fardh prayers with the same tayammum.
- When one denounces Islam.
- As already seen, Swalat is the second pillar of Islam.
- It is a practical pillar since it must be observed by following specific steps.
- The entire process of swalat which starts right from purification to its actual performance leaves a positive impact on the Muslim and society at large.
- In this section, we shall look at how prayers benefit the society both spiritually and socially.
- It trains a Muslim to avoid evil and shameful deeds. Allah(S.W.T) says “and established regular prayer for prayer restrains from shameful and evil deeds.”[Q: 29:45]
- Prayer is a means of leveling all differences of rank, creed, color, status and nationality, thus promoting equality. This is achieved through the use of similar facilities by all, standing side by side during swalat regardless of the differences in status, race or rank.
- Promotes leadership qualities. For example the choosing of an Imam among the Muslims who is given and respect honor by all.
- It encourages a Muslim to enjoin good and forbid evil.
- It brings cohesion and unity among Muslim who will meet at the mosque frequently thus renewing their friendship.
- It encourages a Muslim to be time concious since each prayer is conducted at a prescribed time; you are expected to arrive in the mosque or area of conducting the prayers in good time.
- It instills self-respect, self-discipline, self-control, love, peace and harmony.
- It is the second pillar of Islam which therefore be observed by every Muslim.
- It makes a Muslim realize his duty is to worship Allah (S.W.T) alone.Allah (S.W.T) says: “Verily I am Allah; there is no God but I: So serve non other than Me (only) and establish regular player for my remembrance.”[Q:20:40]
- It is a sign of obedience for all those who perform prayers since it is a command from Allah.
- Is a means through which Muslims communicate directly to God thus discouraging polytheism (shirk).
- Prayers distinguish believers from non-believers since they are only performed by those who believe in Allah (S.W.T) and if performed by the non believer, then it does not become acceptable.
- Prayers are offered either individually or in congregation.
- When offered in congregation,it is refeered Swalat ul Jamaa.
- It is the performance of prayers together by more than one person.
- There are several prayers that are performed in congregation, these include:
- the five daily prayers
- Friday noon prayers
- prayers during eclipse (solar and lunar)
- the two Idd prayers (Al Fitri and Al Adha)
- swalatul Janaza(funeral prayers)
- Al Istisqai (prayer for seeking rain).
Conditions for Jamaa prayer.
- You must have noted during the performance of prayers in congregation, there are certain things that should be observed.
- Below, we are going to explain to you some of these conditions which you may have performed unknowingly in your mosque or when you were attending a swalat in Jamaa.
- It should be conducted at an accessible place where anybody is not deprived of the chance to attend it ie the place should be open and accessible to all.
- The place should be such that people are neither shy nor scared from entering or attending.
- Performing Jamaa with one’s family is highly recommended because it gives a chance to teach the young members how to pray. It encourages members of the family to perform prayers without laziness and enables the head of the family to monitor the attitudes of the family members.
- The Imam should understand the steps to be followed and he should follow them.
- Both the imam and the followers must be at the same place. The followers in two mosques can not be led by the same Imam.
- The followers should not perform any step before the Imam for example one should follow the Imam when going for rukuu, sijda or any other step.
- A female Imam can only be allowed when leading other females otherwise she can neither lead males nor a congregation of both males and females. Generally, the women are not as compelled to perform Jamaa prayers as males because of their roles as mothers and caretakers of the family.
- A non Muslim is not allowed to lead a congregation prayer even if he is knowledgeable and there is no one to lead prayers.
- An insane cannot lead prayers. This is so because he might not comprehend the pronunciation of words and format of the prayer.
- When leading the prayers, the Imam should pronounce the words clearly without substituting the sounds and syllables.
- The Imam should be more knowledgeable over the rest in Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) and aspects of swalat, among other branches of Islamic knowledge. When there is more than one knowledgeable person, other attributes like piety should be considered. Where all of them are pious, then the oldest can be made the Imam.
Importance of Swalat ul Jamaa
- In most communities you will observe that members are encouraged to do most of the activities together and in unity.
- Usually success is achieved when things are done in unity thus the Swahili proverb; umoja ni nguvu utengano ni udhaifu(unity is strength).
- In Islam the prophet(P.B.U.H) highly recommended the Jamaat prayers as stated in the following hadiths:
Abu Huraira (R.A) narrated that a blind man came to the prophet (P.B.U.H) and said to him, “O messenger of Allah, I have no one to guide me to the mosque.’(He was asking for the permission of the prophet to pray in his house) the prophet (P.B.U.H) gave himpermission to pray at home, but when he turned to go back, the prophet called him and said, “do you hear the Adhan?” the blind man said, “Yes” the prophet then said, “then respond to it (by coming to the mosque)” (related by Muslim.)
Ibn Abbas (R.A) narrated that the messenger of Allah said, “If any one hears the Adhan but does not come to the congregational prayer, the prayer he offers will not be accepted unless he has an excuse” (Ibn Ma’ja,Ibn Hiban, Al Hakim)
- The above two hadith can briefly illustrate to us how the prophet laid emphasis on the observance of prayers in Jamaa.
- Let us also consider the following benefits of Jamaa prayers:
- Muslims have a chance of converging five times a day to cement their brotherhood when the prayers are performed at the mosque behind the Imam.
- One can unite his family members and monitor their performance in ibadah by performing prayers with them in Jamaa.
- Muslims learn from others how to perform prayers correctly. This is of specific importance to children and new converts who need to learn religious practices from others who are experienced.
- It promotes confidence in performance of prayers.
- It promotes discipline since the maamumatare not supposed to preceed the Imam. Such discipline makes and proves the Islamic system of worship to be orderly
- It promotes strictness and concentration.
- Develops and promotes leadership qualities. For example the selection of one of the members to be an imam shows respect and honoraccorded to him.
- The reward for Jamaa prayer is twenty seven times more than praying alone.
- It promotes Muslims of different social, political, economic and professional background keep off their differences and converge together for prayers.
- Even though we have prayers prescribed for particular times, Islam gives room for certain prayers to be offered during special occasions.
- We shall consider the following as special acassions:
Swalatul Musafir: (Prayer of a Traveler) Read [Q:4:101]
- In normal life situation people travel from one place to another for various reasons.
- In Arabic language, a traveler is known as a musafir.
- But in the context of special prayer,a musafir is a Muslim who sets out intending to travel for more than 77 kilometers regardless of the mode of transport.
- He is regarded a musafir the moment he comes out of the boundaries of his town or city.
- During traveling, a muslim may not be in a position to offer the prayers in the normal way due to the conditions experienced in the journey.
- Allah (S.W.T) Has not left out his favors and has given the Muslim traveler privileges which include swalatul Musafir.
- This prayer can be performed in three ways.:
- Jamu’ Taqdim,
- Jamu’ Taakhir
- Allah says “When you travel through the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten the prayers, for fear the unbelievers may attack you: For the unbelievers are unto enemies.”[Q 4:101]
- This is to bring forward a prayer e.g. to bring forward Asr and pray it at Dhuhr time.
- Muadh (R.A) narrated, “We set out with the prophet on the expedition of Tabuk and he combined Dhuhr and Asr together…” (Muslim)
- This is delaying of one prayer and performing it at the time of the next prayer.
- For example, delaying Dhuhr and then performing it with Asr during Asr time.
- Anas (R.A) narrated that:“Whenever the messenger of Allah started on a journey before the sun had passed its meridian (before noon) he would delay the Dhuhr prayer till the time of Asr…”(Bukhari and Muslim)
- It is the shortening of the 4 rakaats prayer to perform then in two rakats.
- For example, Dhuhr, Asr and Isha can all be shortened to two rakaats.
- There is no reduction of rakaats for the fajr and maghrib swalaats. One has to offer them completely as he normally does.
- Anas (R.A) narrated: “We travelled with the prophet from Madina to Makka and he used to pray two rakaat prayers until we returned to Madina.” (Bukhari and Muslim)
Other prayers for special occasions include the following;
Kusuf wal Khusuf
- Have you ever witnessed either of the eclipses?
- Are you aware that Islam has offered a clear and definite practice to be done during any of the eclipses? This is by performing two rakaat prayers.
- Aisha(RA) Narrated that , “The messenger of Allah recited the Quran aloud during the eclipse prayer and performed a total of two rakaat” (Bukhari and Muslim)
- Allah (S.W.T) has created different seasons like summer, winter, spring and autumn.
- Some of these seasons are favourable to man while others are harsh.
- These seasons are associated with different conditions.
- Among these conditions is drought.
- You will realize that most communities offer sacrifices and prayers to their ancestors and other creatures besides Allah(S.W.T).
- This is shirk and is totally forbidden in Islam.
- In the event of a drought, Islam prescribes a special prayer to be performed.
- This prayer is referred to as Swalatul Istisqa’a, which is a two rakaat congregational prayer is offered.
- Anas (RA) narrated that, “The messenger of Allah supplicated Allah for rain and he pointed with the back of his hand to the sky.” (Muslim)
- There are two Eid prayers which are performed in two different ocasions;
- Idd-ul Fitr: It is a two rakaat prayer performed to mark the end of the month of Ramadhan.
- Idd-ul Adha: It is a two rakaat prayer performed on the tenth of Dhul Hijja to mark the end of the activities of Hajj.
- Aisha (R.A) narrated that, the messenger of Allah said, “Breaking the fast at the end of Ramadhan is (determined) when people break their fast and Idd ul Adha (the Idd of sacrifice)is determined when people offer their sacrifices.” (At-Tirmidhy)
Swalatul Janaiza- Funeral Prayer:
- Salatul Janazah is Fardh Kafayah, that is, if one performs the prayer then all are free of the responsiblity.
- Jamma (congregation) is not a condition for this prayer as it is sufficient even if one person prays.
- This is a prayer performed for the dead.
- When a muslim passes on, it is the responsibility of those who are around him during the time of his or her death to wash the body and pray for it.
- On the prayer of Janaiza, Aisha (R.A) narrated, “By Allah, the messenger of Allah offered funeral prayer in mosque for the sons of Baida’ (Sahl and suhail).” [Muslim]
- There are two parts of this Prayer:
- To say Allahu Akbar
- Qiyam, which has three sunna Muaqada:Sana, Durood and Duaa for the deceased
How to perform swalatul Janaza
- Niyyat: The performer should make the intention, “I make the niyyat for the prayer of this janaza for Allah, duaa for this deceased, behind this imam.”
- Takbiratul-Ihram: The perfomers should raise their hands to their ears and fold their hands underneath the navel as usual whilst saying Allahu Akbar and read Sana.
سُبْحَانَكَ اَّللُهَّم َوِبحَمْدِكَ وَ تَبَاْرَكَ اسْمُكَ َوتَعَالَئ جَدُّكَ وَجَلَّ َثَناءٌكَ وَلَااِلَه غَيْرُكَ
Glory be to You Oh Allah, and praise be to You, and blessed is Your name, and exalted is Your Majesty, and there is none to be served besides You.
- Then raise the hands, say Allahu Akbar and read the duroode Ibraheem;
الَّھُمَّ صَلي علي مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلي آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ کَماَ صَلَّيتَ عَلي اِبْرَاھِيمَ وَعَلي آلِ اِبْرَاھِيمَ اِنَّکَ حَمِيدُ مَجِيداَلَّھُمَّ بَارِک عَلي مُحَمَّدٍ وَّعَلي آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ کَمَا بَارَکتَ عَلي اِبرَا ھِيمَ وَعَلي آلِ اِبرَاھِيمَ اِنّکَ حَمِيدُ مَّجِيد
O Allah! Shower Your mercy upon Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad, as You showered Your mercy upon Ibrahim and the followers of Ibrahim. Behold, You are Praiseworthy, Glorious. Oh Allah! Shower Your blessing upon Muhammad, and the followers of Muhammad as You showered Your blessings upon Ibrahim and the followers of Ibrahim. Behold, You are Praiseworthy, Glorious.
- Then raise the hands, say Allahu Akbar and read the duaa.
Duaa for an adult man or woman:
اللَّهمَّ اغْفِرْ لِحَيِّنَا وَمَيِّتِنَا وَشَاهِدِنَا، وَغَائِبِنَا، وَصَغِيْرِنَا وَكَبِيْرِنَا، وَذَكَرِنَا وَأُنْثَانَا. اللَّهمَّ مَنْ أَحْيَيْتَه ُُ مِنَّا فَأَحْيِه ِِ عَلَى الإِسْلامِ، وَمَنْ تَوَفَّيْتَه ُُ مِنَّا فَتَوَفَّه ُُ عَلَى الإِيْمَانِ، اللَّهمَّ لا تَحْرِمْنَا أَجْرَهُ، وَلا تُضِلَّنَا بَعْدَهُ
Oh Allah! Forgive those of us that are alive and those of us that are dead; those of us that are present and those of us who are absent; those of us who are young and those of us who are adults; our males and our females. Oh Allah! Whomsoever You keep alive let him live as a follower of Islam and whomsoever. You cause to die, let him die a Believer.
Duaa for a boy:
اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ لَنَا فَرَطًا وَاجْعَلْهُ لَنَا أَجْرًا وَذُخْرًا وَاجْعَلْهُ لَنَا شَافِعًا وَمُشَفَّعًا
Oh! Allah, make him (this child) a source for our salvation and make him a source of reward and treasure for us and make him an intercessor for us and one whose intercession is accepted.
Duaa for a girl:
اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهَا لَنَا فَرَطًا وَاجْعَلْهَا لَنَا أَجْرًا وَذُخْرًا وَاجْعَلْهَا لَنَا شَافِعَةً وَمُشَفَّعَةً
Oh! Allah, make her (this child) a source for our salvation and make her a source of reward and treasure for us and make her an intercessor for us and one whose intercession is accepted.
- After the duaa, say Allahu Akbar, drop the hands and then turn the head both sides for salaam.
- Demonstration of a worshipper in the sujuud position.
- Read [Q 7:206]; [Q:19:58];[Q:25:60];[Q:32:15];[Q:84:21]
- It s evident that all these verses mention the word sijdah.
- Sijadah is a very important act of worship in the life of a muslim and that is why several verse of the Quran that mention it.
- You will also observe that sijdah is part of the obligatory steps in swalat.
- Sijda is an act ofworship which involves prostration and glorification where by the forehead, palms and the knees firmly touch the ground facing the direction of the Qibla.
- Narrated al-Bara’ bin A-zib (R.A) that the messenger of Allah said, “Whenever you prostrate place the palms of your hand (on the ground) and raise your elbows.” (Muslim)
Types of Sijdats
- Besides sijda during swalat, there are other three types of Sijdat namely:-
- Sijdatul Tilawa
- Sijdatul Shukr
- Sijdatul Sahw
- Earlier in this section, we have learnt that there are several verses in the Quran that mention the word sijda.
- What do you do when you come across these verses?
- Definitely you will have to pause and prostrate then continue with your recitation.
- This prostration is what is referred to as Tilawa.
- There are fourteen places of prostration in the Holy Quran as agreed upon by all the Muslim religious scholars, while Imam Shafi suggests prostration at Quran 22:77 to make them a total of fifteen.
- Allah says in the Quran, “But fall ye down in prostration to Allah and adore Him.”[Q 53:62]
- Ibn Abbas(RA)narrated , “the messenger of Allah prostrated when he recited suratul Najm[Q: 13]”\
Quotation of verses in the quran that require prostration
|NAME OF SURAH||NUMBER OF SURAH||NUMBER OF VERSE||THE WORD|
|An –Nahl||16||49||Walillaahi yasjudu|
|Mary am||19||58||Kharruu sujjadan|
Wa idha qiila
|An-Naml||27||25||Al-la yasjuduu lillaahi|
- Human beings have a tendancy of forgeting.
- At times we forget and even skip certain steps during the performance of swalat.
- In such an eventuality, what do you do?
- Whenever a worshipper omits by forgetting to perform an important pillar of swalat (Arkanu swalat) he is supposed to perform sijdatu-Sahwi(prostration for forgetfulness)
- This type of sijda is usually performed in swalat before the first salaam and just like the ordinary prostration.
- For example, if one forgets to perfor the ruku’,or sijdah or any other pillar of swalat.
- Imran bin al-Hussein (R.A) narrated:"the messenger of Allah led them in prayer and forgot (to do something) so he made two prostrations and recited the tashahud and then said the Tasleem." (Abu Dawoud and At-Tirmidhy)
- Muslims should always be grateful and thankful to Allah (S.W.T)
- Prostration is one of the ways of showing gratitude to Allah (S.W.T).
- This type of sijda is performed for the purposes of showing ones gratefulness and appreciation towards Allah after attaining any good thing e.g. passing of examinations, getting a new born babysit is a way of thanking Allah.
- It can be performed in any place that is clean.
- Abu Bakar (R.A) narrated, “Whenever the prophet received something which pleased him,he would make the Sajda in gratitude to Allah” (Related by the six Imams except An-Nasai)
- Every society will have people who are well off and those who need assistance.
- In many cases, every society will have its own way of dealing with such situations.
- Islam as a complete way of life has not been left behind.
- The plight of the poor and the needy has been well taken care of by the institution of Zakat.
- It is one of the major religious duties and the third pillar in Islam.
- Zakat was made obligatory on Ummahs of all prophets even before Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) this is evident when we look into the Holy Quran where we see that from ancient times Salah and Zakat were ordained as compulsory.
- For example, there is mentioning about Prophet Ibraham and the Prophets of his race when Allah says in the Quran:
"And We made them leaders of men. They guided the people according to Our command, and We inspired in them the doing of good deeds and right establishment of Salah and giving of Zakat and they were worshippers of Us." [Q: 21:73]
- About Prophet Ismael it is said:
"He enjoined upon his people Salah and Zakat and was acceptable in the sight of his Lord." [Q: 19:55]
- Prophet Moses prayed for his ummah:
"O God! Bestow upon us the well-being of this world as also the well-being of the Hereafter."
"I shall smite with my punishment whom I will. Although My mercy embraced all things, but I shall ordain it for those who will fear Me and give Zakat and those who will believe in Our revelations."[Q: 7:156]
"And Allah said:‘O Children of Israel! I am with you, if you offer Salah, and give Zakat and believe in My messengers and support those messengers who are to come, and lend unto Allah a nice loan surely I shall remit your sins.’"[Q: 5:12]
- Before Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) the last Prophet was Prophet Issa. The commandment about Salah and Zakat was given to him also by Allah, as is found in Suratul-Mariam:
"And hath made me blessed wheresoever I may be, and hath enjoined upon me Salah and Zakat so long as I remain alive." [Q: 19:31)
- This shows that the religion of Islam has been established from the beginning, in the ministry of every prophet, on the two great pillars of Salah and Zakat, and it never happened that any Ummah believing in Allah (S.W.T) was exempted from these two obligatory duties.
- Literally the term Zakat is Arabic word which means both 'purification' and 'growth'.
- It refers to the purification of a believer's wealth and soul.
- Wealth purification denotes the mobilization of assets for the purpose of financial growth and justified distribution.
- Purification of the soul implies freedom from hatred, jealousy, selfishness, uneasiness and greed.
- Almighty Allah (S.W.T) says, “And be steatfast in prayer; practice regular charity; and bow down your heads with those who bow down (in worship).”[Q: 2:43]
- Technically, it involves distributing a portion of one’s wealth to those prescribed by the Quran.
- Other Quranic connotations also include the purification of sin.
- It is one of the most important principles of Islam and the third pillar.
- Allah (S.W.T) says, “And they have been commanded No more than this: To worship Allah, Offering Him sincere devotion, being true in (faith); to establish regular prayers; And to practice regular charity; and that is the religion Right and Straight.”[Q: 98:5
- There are three types of Zakat namely;
- Zakatul Maal
- Zakat-ul-Maal is the obligatory charity paid by an individual to the needy from the property which he possesses.
- It is obligatory on an individual who possesses wealth equal to or above a minimum amount called Nisab for an entire lunar year.
- For the purpose of calculating Zakat, different categories of wealth are defined,this shall be demonstrated by the table (on page ) on specific items on which Zakat is payable.
- In terms of Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), Zakatul-Maal is an obligatory duty (Fardh) on every Muslim possessing wealth equal to or exceeding the prescribed amount of Nisab.
- It is a prescribed welfare-contribution from one’s stored wealth.
- It is the right of Allah (S.W.T) on a Muslim's wealth.
- Paying Zakat-ul-Maal is the responsibility of the owner.
- If one fails to carry out this obligation, he is a sinner, consequently incurring Allah's displeasure and His punishment in the hereafter.
- Zakatu-ul-Fitr is Zakat on the individual.
- It is a special charity paid to the needy on or before the day of Eid -ul-Fitr, which is the first day of the month of Shawwal following the month of Ramadhan.
- Zakat-ul-Fitr is paid asatonement for any shortcomings in the worship of Fasting during the month of Ramadan.
- On the day of Eid -ul-Fitr, which marks the completion of the month ofRamadhan, every Muslim possessing an amount of food in excess of his family's need for a day (24 hours) is mandated to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr on his own behalf and for all his dependent(s).
- Zakat-ul-Fitr or Fitrah is "the one full meal per person or cash equivalent to the cost of one full meal, given directly to the needy of the community before Eid-ul-Fitr prayer.
- Arrangements for paying Fitrah should be made ahead of time so that it reaches the eligible recipients in time for them to make use of it on Eid day.
- The quantity of Zakat-ul-Fitr traditionally amounts to one Sa`, which is equivalent to 21/2kilograms of food such as wheat, barley, rice, or the like.
- Ibn Abbas (RA) narrated that, “The messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H) enjoined Zakatul Fitr on the one who fasts in the month of Ramadhan to purify him from any indecent act or speech and for the purpose of providing food for the needy… (Abu aawoud and Ibn Ma’jah)
- Sadaqah is an Arabic term widely used to cover all kinds of charity.
- Although Sadaqah and Zakat are often used interchangeably, Sadaqah implies voluntary charity and is not limited to giving out money or food.
- All good deeds are considered Sadaqah and are rewarded by Allah (S.W.T).
- These even include practices that may look simple such as removing a thorn from the path,helping the old to cross a busy road among others.
- Every Muslim is exhorted to give Sadaqah.
- The Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) said:“Every Muslim has to give Sadaqah.” The people asked: “O Prophet of Allah, what about the one who has nothing?”He replied: “He should work with his hand to give Sadaqah.” They asked: “If he cannot find (work)?” He replied: “He should help the needy who ask for help.” They asked:“If he cannot do that?” He replied: “He should then do good deeds and shun evil, for this will be taken as Sadaqah.”(Sahih al-Bukhari)
- Muslims practice charity and earn rewards from Allah (S.W.T) by doing good deeds all their lives.
- They can continue earning Allah’s rewards even after their death.
- This is called perpetual Sadaqah(sadaqatul-Jariyah).
- Abu Hurayra (R.A) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (P.B.U.H) said, "When the son of Adam dies, his actions are cut off except for three: Sadaqah Jariyah (on-going charity), knowledge which brought benefit, and a virtuous son who makes supplication for him." [Muslim]
- Sadaqah Jariyah means Continuous Alms/Charity.
- A continuous charity is an action that someone does that remains active even after the person is dead.
- For example, if a person digs a well then people can use it for a very long time - even after the person dies.
- This type of charity is very effective and serves better than just giving money as the person who initiated the action will get thawab even after he dies.
|Zakat is a pillar of Islam||Sadaqah is an act of charity.|
|Zakat has a nisab- (the minimum amount one must have before it becomes compulsory.)||Sadaqah has no minimum amount.|
|There is a fixed amount to be paid on the saved money or cash.||Any amount can be given as sadaqa.|
|Zakat is paid on specific and particular items.||Sadaqah is paid on anything one wish to give from.|
|There is fixed period within which one must pay Zakat.||Sadaqah can be paid at any time.|
|Zakat is payable to specific recipients mentioned in the Quran.||Sadaqah can be given to any person in need whether a Muslim or a non Muslim.|
|Zakat is compulsory to the Muslims who qualify to pay it.||Sadaqah is voluntary to whoever wishes to give it.|
- Even though payment of Zakat is a must to the able Muslims, certain conditions have to be observed.
- These include the following:
- One paying it must be a Muslim.
- One must be a free man and not a slave.
- One must be of sound mind (sane.)
- The giver of Zakat must have attained maturity.
- The wealth to be paid should have reached nisab.
- The wealth or property must have been in ones possession for a full year.
- Zakat-ul- Fitr should be paid before one goes for the Eid prayers.
|Zakaat-ul –Maal||Zakaat-ul- Fitr|
|The wealth must have been in Possession for one year.||It should be given in the month of Ramadhan before one goes for Idd Prayers.|
|The rate should be calculated according to the property to be given out.||It should be given on 21/2 kg of the staple food|
It should be given to recipient prescribed in the Quran.
|It can be given to any needy or destitute Muslim|
|One may also give in the form of cash.|| |
This must represent the exact equivalent of the market value of the kind and quality of the staple food which would have otherwise been offered. e.g.cash, animals,minerals,fruits among others.
|The nisab depends on the amount of wealth.||The value is determined by the number of dependants in the family.|
|It purifies wealth||It purifies saum|
It is given at any time of the year when it is due.
|Given only in the month of Ramadhan|
- During the distribution of Zakat, it is very important that it is done according to the sharia.
- The following conditions should be considered:
- The intention (Niyyat) should be for the sake of fulfilling Allah’s command and not for any other reasons.
- It should be given to the recipients prescribed by the Quran.
- It should be given promptly, when it is due.
- Zakat of one place should not be transferred to another place.
- The item payable for Zakat should not be exchanged for another item. For example it is permisable to use the nisab for animals when you are supposed to pay zakat for minerals but one can convert the cows into currency and then a rate of the currency is given out for Zakat.
- Domestic animals such as camels, sheep, oxen which are not kept as articles of trade.
- Agricultural produce such crops and fruits of the field like wheat, barley, dates, raisins, rice, maize and vegetables.
- Gold, silver and other mineral products.
- Dug out treasures whose ownership has not been identified for one year.
- Trade and merchandise(goods for trade)
- Savings from the sale of goods should be paid for Zakatafter a year.
- Savings from the house rent and land rates.
- Personal income.
- Even though Zakat is an obligatory Pillar in Islam and that one has to pay,there are certain items which a Muslim is not supposed to give.
- These items include the following:
- Private houses in which the owner dwells in.
- Animals used for transportation.
- Furniture, clothing Weapons or tools for daily use.
- Books which are not for sale.
- Jewellery or ornaments which have not reached nisab.
- Machinery used for manufacture of goods.
- There are those people whom the Quran has singled out to be the rightful beneficiaries of Zakat.
- The Quran has identified a list of deserving persons to whom Zakat should be given.
Allah says “Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer the ( funds); For those whose hearts have been recently reconciled to the truth; and for those in bondage and in debt; in the course of Allah; and for the wayfarer:”(Thus is it) ordained by Allah, and Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom.”[Q: 9:60]
- According to the above verse the recipients of Zakat are as follows:
- The poor(Fuqara). These are the Muslims who do not have any means of livelihood and material possession to support themselves and their families.
- The needy(Masaakin) These are the Muslims who lack sufficient means of livelihood to meet their basic requirements.
- Zakat collectors(Aamil) They are the Muslims who have been entrusted with the responsibility of collecting and distributing Zakat. They receive it as their source of income.
- The new converts(Mualaf) They are also referred to as sympathizers. They are the people who have just embraced Islam and need help to settle down and strengthen their faith.
- The captives(Riqab) These are prisoners of war or hostages who need to be ransomed in order to secure their freedom.
- Debtors(Gharimin) These are Muslims who have incurred debts through halal transactions. Zakat can be used to pay off there debts which they incurred to meettheir basic needs.
- Those on the course of Allah(Fisabillillah) Zakat can be used to finance any form of struggle or course for the love of Allah (S.W.T) such as aa’wa.sponsering students educational expence among others.
- The wayfarers(Ibnu Sabil) These are stranded travelers on lawful journey who are in difficulty and may need assistance to cater for their travel and basic needs.
- Allah (S.WT) has prescribed the pillars in Islam for the benefit of humankind.
- These benefits include social, spiritual and even economical.
- Let us now look at the importance of Zakat.
Spiritual Importance of Zakat.
- A believer gets rewards by fulfilling this third pillar of Islam.
- It is a commandment of Allah (S.W.T)and therefore must be observed by every Muslim who qualifies to give it.
- Giving of Zakat purifies the wealth of the giver.
- It blesses the wealth of the giver.
- The institution of Zakat enables one to fulfill his religious obligation.
- Develops spiritual growth and piety.
- Creates good relationship between the giver and receiver.
- Remove jealously/ mistrust of the rich.
- Restores hope, dignity and worthiness of the poor.
- Reduces the gap between the rich and poor
- Develops and fosters a healthy social relationship among members of the community.
- Removes pride, selfishness or greed among rich.
- Job creation for the Zakat collectors who secure employment.
- Fighting corruption
- Clearing debts of citizens
- It helps foster equality among the Muslims.
- Promotes unity and brotherhood among the Muslim Ummah.
- It fosters love among the Muslims.
- Zakat Helps raise living standards of the poor less, fortunate and the marginalized communities.
- It helps the poor and needy by relieving their hardships and troubles.
- Helps create a self supporting community which does not require financial or economic assistance in form of food or material. This enables the Muslim community to be self reliant and independent.
- Zakat contributes to the national budget as it is a form of tax.
- It helps in the creation of job and employment opportunities.
- Those in debt are able to settle them from the Zakat.
- Zakat assists in improving the economy in the society by creating job opportunities for example the Zakat collectors and distributors, clearance of debts and establishment of social amenities.
|It is the third pillar of Islam||It is a law of the government or rather the policies of state|
|It is only paid annually||It can be paid monthly, weekly, daily or even hourly.|
|The rate of Zakat is fixed till the day of judgment.||Its rate keeps fluctuating or rather it is determined by the amount of income one earns.|
|It is a commandment of Allah (S.W.T) Q2: 110|| It is authorized by the government, King |
or the ruler of the state.
|It is payable on one’s saving||It is calculated from the gross salary or net profit.|
|It is rewarded by Allah and therefore cannot be evaded||It is rewarded by the state ruler or government hence one is fined for not giving it out.|
- Zakat plays a very important role in the promotion of integrity in the society through the following ways:
- It enhances the sense of responsibility in that the giverfeels obliged to perform the acts as an obligatory duty upon him.
- It also promotes loyalty which is an aspect of integrity. The giver shows loyalty to Allah who has commanded those with wealth to give it in charity. Zakat has been mentioned eighty two (82) times in the Quran.
- It assists in curbing vices such as theft, by regulating the owning of resources in the society and creating a balance.
- Giving of Zakat helps in minimizing vices such as jealousy and envy in that the receiver feels satisfied when he is given the share from it. And to the giver it reduces extravagance and greed for wealth.
- It encourages hard work because every Muslim has an incentive to work since he is expected to give something to the needy and earn thawab.
- Zakat reduces injustices such as unfair distribution of wealth in that only the rightful recipients are given.
- Zakat promotes unity in the society by bringing together both the rich and the poor.
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