History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Kigumo Mocks 2021 Exams

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Instructions to the candidates

  1. This paper consists of three sections, A,B and C
  2. Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B, and two questions from section C
  3. Answers to all the questions must be written in the answer booklet provided
  4. Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated, and that no questions are missing
  5. Candidates should answer all the questions in English

For Examiner’s use only

section

Question

Maximum score

Candidate’s score

A

1-17

25

 

B

18

15

 

19

15

 

20

15

 

21

15

 

C

22

15

 

23

15

 

24

15

 

QUESTIONS

Section A (25 marks)
Answer all questions in this section in the answer booklet provided

  1. Define the term government. (1mark)
  2. State two ways in which the Abagusii and the Kipsigis interacted during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
  3. Identify the winds that aided the early visitors to the Kenyan Coast to sail back to Arabia (1 mark)
  4. Identify two missionary societies which operated in Kenya in the 19th century. (2marks)
  5. Give two conditions that a person should satisfy to become a Kenyan citizen by Registration. (2 marks)
  6. Name the provision of the constitution that protects the wealth of individuals in Kenya. (1 mark)
  7. State two economic reasons that encouraged the British to colonize Kenya during the 19th century. (2 marks)
  8. Identify two education commissions established in Kenya during the colonial period (2 marks)
  9. Give the main reason why Africans were not allowed to grow cash crops during the colonial period. (1 mark)
  10. Name the colonial governor who declared the State of Emergency in 1952. (1 mark)
  11. State two qualifications for a person to contest for election as a member of the County Assembly in Kenya. (2 marks)
  12. Give the title of the head of National Police service in Kenya. (1 mark)
  13. Give the highest court in Kenya. (1 mark)
  14. Name the political party that was established by Jaramogi Oginga Odinga in 1966 (1 mark)
  15. State two national philosophies adopted at independence to promote social justice in Kenya. (2marks)
  16. Name the nationalist with whom Kenyatta shared power in the coalition government after the Lancaster House Conference of 1962 (1mark)
  17. Name two parliamentary committees that monitor the Expenditure of public revenue in Kenya. (2 marks)

Section B (45 marks)
Answer three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1.                    
    1. State five economic activities of the Borana during pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Abagusii during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)
  2.                          
    1. State five African grievances which led to the formation of political associations in Kenya between 1919 and 1939 (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons for the long Nandi resistance against the establishment of colonial rule (10 marks)
  3.                        
    1. Give five ways through which the colonial government promoted settler farming in Kenya (5 marks)
    2. Explain five terms of the Devonshire White Paper of 1923 (10 marks)
  4.                    
    1. Give five social effects of national philosophies in Kenya (5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing the education sector in Kenya (10 marks)

Section C (30 marks)
Answer two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1.                    
    1. State five principles of democracy. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that promote national unity in Kenya. (10 marks)
  2.                  
    1. State five preparations made by the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission before elections are held in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five functions of the National Assembly in Kenya (10 marks)
  3.                    
    1. Identify five types of taxes paid by Kenyans. (5 marks)
    2. Describe five functions of the County government in Kenya. (10 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Define the term government. (1mark)
    • Way of ruling, administering and controlling a people / continuous exercise of authority over a people (1 x 1 = 1mark)
  2. State two ways in which the Abagusii and the Kipsigis interacted during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
    • Intermarriage
    • Trade
    • Raids/warfare (2 x1= 2 marks)
  3. Identify the winds that aided the early visitors to the Kenyan Coast to sail back to Arabia (1 mark)
    • Southwest monsoon winds/monsoon winds (1x1=1mark)
  4. Identify two missionary societies which operated in Kenya in the 19th century. (2marks)
    • Church Missionary Society(CMS)
    • United Methodist Church
    • The Church of Scotland Mission
    • African Inland Mission
    • The Holy Ghost Fathers
    • The Consolata Fathers
    • The Hill Mill Fathers (2x1=2 marks)
  5. Give two conditions that a person should satisfy to become a Kenyan citizen by Registration. (2 marks)
    • Be married to a Kenyan citizen for at least 7 years.
    • Lawfully resided in Kenya for a continuous period of 7 years
    • Should be a child from foreign country adopted by Kenyan citizen. (2 x1=2 marks)
  6. Name the provision of the constitution that protect wealth of individuals in Kenya. (1 mark)
    • Right to own property/Bill of Rights ( 1x1=1 mark)
  7. State two economic reasons that encouraged the British to colonise Kenya during the 19th century. (2 marks)
    • To establish reliable market for their manufactured goods
    • To establish sources for the industrial raw materials for industries in Britain
    • To find areas to invest surplus capital
    • To establish legitimate trade (2x1=2 marks)
  8. Identify two education commissions established in Kenya during the colonial period (2 marks)
    • Fraser Commission (of 1908)
    • Phelps Stokes Commission (of 1924)
    • Beecher Commission (of 1949)
    • Binns Commission (of 1952) (2x1 =2 marks)
  9. Give the main reason why Africans were not allowed to grow cash crops during the colonial period. (1 mark)
    • So as to provide labour for the settlers (1x1=1 mark)
  10. Name the colonial governor who declared the State of Emergency in 1952. (1 mark)
    • Sir Evelyn Baring (1 x 1= 1mark)
  11. State two qualifications for a person to contest for election as a member of the County Assembly in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Must be a registered voter.
    • Must attain standards of education and moral values prescribed by the law
    • Must be nominated by a political party or an independent candidate who is supported by at least 500 registered voters in the ward (2x1=2 marks)
  12. Give the title of the head of National Police service in Kenya. (1 mark)
    • Inspector General (1 x 1= 1mark)
  13. Give the highest court in Kenya. (1 mark
    • Supreme Court (1 x 1= 1mark)
  14. Name the political party that was established by Jaramogi Oginga Odinga in 1966 (1 mark)
    • Kenya Peoples Union. (1 x 1= 1mark)
  15. State two national philosophies adopted at independence to promote social justice in Kenya. (2marks)
    • African socialism.
    • Harambee. (2x1=2 marks)
  16. Name the nationalist with whom Kenyatta shared power in the coalition government after the Lancaster House
    • Conference of 1962 (1mark)
    • Ronald Ngala (1x1=1mark).
  17. Name two parliamentary committees that monitor the Expenditure of public revenue in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • The Public Accounts Committee
    • The Public Investments Committee. (2 x 1= 2 marks)
  18.                                  
    1. State five economic activities of the Borana during pre-colonial period. (5 marks)
      • They participated in trade.
      • They kept livestock.
      • They hunted wild animals.
      • They practiced hunting and gathering.
      • They practiced crafts.
      • They practiced fishing.
      • They made iron tools.
      • They grew crops. (5x1=5 marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Abagusii during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)
      • The clan was the basic social unit made of people who claimed a common ancestry.
      • Circumcision of both boys and girls formed part of their initiation rites.
      • The initiated boys formed an age-set which provided warriors who defended the community.
      • They believed in the existence of a powerful being (God) who was known as Engoro.
      • They believed in the ancestral spirits who acted as mediators between mankind and God
      • They also had special people such as diviners (Omorogori), seers and priest. Diviners interpreted God’s message to the people while priests offered prayers. (5x2=10 marks)
  19.                      
    1. State five African grievances which led to the formation of political associations in Kenya between 1919-1939 (5 marks)
      • Land alienation
      • Forced labour
      • The kipande system
      • Interference with African culture
      • Imposition of taxes
      • Poor wages/working conditions
      • De-stocking policy
      • Restriction of Africans from growing cash crops
      • Inadequate representation of Africans in the Legco/ Lack of political representation
      • Poor working conditions and low salaries
      • Detention of African nationalists such as Harry Thuku
      • The Kipande system / restriction of African movement
      • Racial discrimination in jobs and provision of social services such as education
      • Disrespect of African culture
      • Loss of independence/ change in the status of Kenya from protectorate to a colony (5x1=5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons for the long Nandi resistance against the establishment of colonial rule (10 marks)
      • They understood the terrain of their area/a heavily forested terrain that hindered the use of heavy equipment by the British
      • They adopted guerrilla warfare making them extremely mobile and difficult to subdue
      • Had reliable food supply / strong / stable economic base as they were mixed farmers
      • They were proud, confident, community having subdued their neighbours e.g. Maasai. Thus they could not accept to lose their dominant position/
      • The military experience gained through fighting other communities
      • They had a strong unifying institution of the Orkoiyot who was also a religious leader
      • They got support by the Kipsigis thus giving them determination to fight
      • Their Superiority in numbers compared to the British troops
      • They had strong military base/structure based on the regimental age set system
      • The British troops were affected by respiratory diseases (5x2=10marks)
  20.                      
    1. Give five ways through which the colonial government promoted settler farming in Kenya (5 marks)
      • The colonial government promoted settler farming through acquiring large tracts of best African land for European settlement mainly in the white highlands.
      • The settlers were also provided with continuous flow of African labour.
      • The settlers were also provided with extension services through the department of Agriculture to enlighten farmers on good farming methods.
      • The colonial government also promoted settler farming through introduction of banking and loan facilities in order to subsidize settler initiative in the development of their farms
      • The settlers were encouraged to form cooperatives to help them in processing and marketing produce
      • The government offered protection to the settlers against hostile African communities
      • Colonial government also promoted settler farming through the building and maintenance of various forms of transport. This promoted transportation of farm produce (5x1=5marks)
    2. Explain five terms of the Devonshire White Paper of 1923 (10 marks)
      • White highlands were reserved for the settlers in recognition of the contribution towards the economy of the colony
      • Asians were allowed to elect 5 representatives to the Legco but on a communal rather than common roll as they would have wished. Settlers retained their representation in the Legco, thus enjoying an upper hand.
      • Restriction on Asian immigration and racial segregation in all the residential areas was abolished
      • The interests of Africans were declared paramount to those of the immigrant races. The colonial office would continue exercising strict control over the affairs of the colony in order to safeguard the interests of Africans
      • A missionary was to be nominated to the Legco to represent African interests
      • No advance towards self-government controlled by Europeans as demanded by Settlers would be allowed. Rather, all races were to participate in the government (5 x 2 = 10marks)
  21.                        
    1. Give five social effects of national philosophies in Kenya (5 marks)
      • The philosophies have encouraged cooperation/unity/understanding among Kenyans
      • Through the philosophies education has been promoted by building schools colleges and universities
      • The philosophies have encouraged mutual social responsibility among Kenyans/minding each other/assisting the disadvantaged people eg through Harambee
      • The philosophies have helped improve medical services by constructing dispensaries health centers and hospitals
      • Has promoted a spirit of hard work and self-reliance
      • It has promoted sporting activities by financing training competition / construction of facilities
      • The philosophies have promoted spiritual well-being through building of churches. (5x1= 5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing the education sector in Kenya (10 marks)
      • High drop-out rate of girls at higher levels of learning due to pregnancies and the practices of Female Genital Mutilation and early marriages among some Kenyan communities. This is being fought by the government, churches and NGO’s
      • Frequent changes and revision of the curriculum which involves huge financial resources. The changes also render the education system discontinuous.
      • Too many unemployed people with higher education and technical skills which discourages the youth from pursuing higher education.
      • High poverty levels in the society have made education to be unaffordable to some people.
      • The increase in the number of school going children vis-à-vis the existing learning infrastructure. For example, there are overcrowded classrooms with a high pupil-teacher ratio./ Inadequate teaching facilities/teachers
      • Insecurity in some regions like Kapedo, Garissa, Mandera, among others undermines government effort to provide education.
      • Frequent industrial unrest over pay by tutors disrupts the education system/strikes by learners
      • Inadequate funds for supporting education
      • Corruption and mismanagement of learning institutions (5x2=10 marks)
  22.                    
    1. State five principles of democracy. (5 marks)
      • Rule of law where all people are equal under the law
      • Equality among the people, and equal opportunity to participate in government
      • Rights and freedoms of the citizens be protected in the constitution through the bill of rights
      • Regular free and fair elections conducted by an independent body in a transparent manner
      • Balance of liberty where rights of individual balance with government power to ensure stability and order in the state
      • Competition among ideas of various parties
      • Multi-partyism where various political parties compete for power based on their policies and ideas
      • Transparency and accountability in management of public affairs
      • Economic freedom whereby private wealth is protected by the law and all people have a chance to prosper economically
      • Consent of the people who delegate power to govern to the elected leaders
      • Responsible free fair and objective mass media to disseminate issues of the state to the people
      • Peace in the country to allow the citizens to express their opinions freely and enjoy their fundamental rights and freedoms (5x1=5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that promote national unity in Kenya. (10 marks)
      • The constitution provides for equality of all Kenyans before the law
      • A common education system in Kenya. Kenyan learners follow the same curriculum whose content emphasizes on national cohesion.
      • The government attempts to provide social amenities to Kenyans without bias /equitable distribution of resources
      • The government encourages social/ economic interaction among Kenyans e.g. marriage, worship and trade, sports and games.
      • National activities and events such as elections, referendum, and national shows
      • The use of Kiswahili national language and English as the official language enables Kenyans to interact freely
      • The national symbols (National anthem, coat of arms, public seal) promotes a sense of belonging among Kenyans and gives them a sense of identity
      • The constitution establishes government institutions that serve all Kenyans equally- Executive, Legislature, judiciary/ one president who is both head of state and government.
      • The National Philosophies- Harambee spirit/Nyayo Philosophy/Nyayoism have made it possible for people of different ethnic group/religious background to work together on various projects. (5x 2 =10 marks)
  23.                                  
    1. State five preparations made by the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission before elections are held in Kenya. (5 marks)
      • Registration of voters.
      • Appointing of election officials such as presiding officers, polling clerks etc.
      • Preparation of election materials e.g ballot papers and boxes.
      • Nomination/clearing of candidates to contest various seats in the election.
      • Arranging for security of ballot papers and boxes.
      • Organizing for transportation of electoral officials and materials.
      • update voters register/ Examination of voters registers to remove dead voters from the registers, eliminate double registration
      • Conduct voter education.
      • Establish polling stations. (5x1=5 marks)
    2. Explain five functions of the National Assembly in Kenya (10 marks)
      • The National Assembly represents the interests of constituencies as well as special interest groups such as the youth and persons with disability
      • The National Assembly debates and resolves issues of concern to the people. It is a forum for expression of national interest
      • The National Assembly determines the allocation of National Revenue between the national government and the county government.
      • The national Assembly has the responsibility of reviewing the conduct in office of the President, Deputy President and other state officers and when necessary initiates the process of removing them from office.
      • The National Assembly approves declaration of war and extension of state of emergency when declared
      • It makes laws that govern the country so as to ensure smooth running of the country.
      • It approves funds for expenditure by the national government and other state organs to ensure provision of services.
      • It supervises the public revenue and expenditure thereby promoting accountability and transparency.
      • It supervises state organs to ensure proper and accountable handling of duties.(5x2=10 marks)
  24.                  
    1. Identify five types of taxes paid by Kenyans. (5 marks)
      • Customs duty Import tax/
      • Export tax
      • excise duty
      • Sales tax
      • Value Added tax
      • Income tax/. Pay as You Earn
      • Value added tax
      • Withholding tax (5x1=5 marks)
    2. Describe five functions of the County government in Kenya. (10 marks)
      • Promotion of Agriculture in the specific areas of crop and animal husbandry, livestock sale yards, county slaughter house, disease control and development of fisheries
      • Provision and supervision of county health services, including regulating pharmacies, ambulances, providing refuse disposal, cemeteries, solid waste disposal, and inspecting food outlets.
      • Management and development of county transport, eg roads, street lighting
      • Development and regulating of trading, through provision of trading licenses, market
      • Providing and managing pre-primary and vocational education, as well as craft and child care.
      • Establishing structures for regulating and facilitating cultural activities and public entertainment.
      • Making laws to regulate and control air pollution, noise pollution and outdoor advertisement
      • Ensuring animal control and welfare. This is through licensing of dogs and providing facilities for accommodation, care and burial of animals.
      • Regulating county planning and development eg through land survey and mapping and fencing, housing, electricity, gas and energy regulation.
      • Implementing specific national government policies on natural resources and environmental conservation.
      • Regulating public works and services, such as water management and sanitation.
      • Providing firefighting services and disaster management facilities in the country.
      • Putting in place measures to control drug usage and access to pornography in the county. (5x2=10 marks)

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