History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Maranda Post Mocks 2020/2021

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SECTION A: (25 MARKS)

(Answer all questions in this section).

  1. Identify one type of artefact that is likely to be found in an archaeological site (1 mark)
  2. State one disadvantage of using caves as shelters by the early human beings during the Stone Age period (1 mark)
  3. Give two main reasons that promoted the development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia (2 marks).
  4. State two ways in which poor transport systems have contributed to food shortages in Africa. (2 marks)
  5. Give one method used to acquire slaves from West Africa during the Trans Atlantic trade. (1 mark).
  6. State two disadvantages of using air transport (2 marks)
  7. Give one factor which should be considered when sending a message. (1 mark)
  8. State two advantages of the use of electricity in industries during the industrial revolution (2 marks)
  9. State the main factor that led to the growth of Meroe as an early urban centre in Africa. (1 mark)
  10. Give two functions of the Kabaka of Buganda (2 marks)
  11. Give one term of the Buganda agreement of 1900 (1 mark)
  12. Give two differences between the British and the French system of administration during the colonial rule (2 marks)
  13. Name one political party that fought for independence in Ghana (1mark)
  14. In what way did the First World War contribute to the rise of the Second World War? (1 mark)
  15. What is veto power in the United Nations Security Council (1 mark)
  16. State two political challenges that faced Tanzania during the rule of President Julius Nyerere (2 marks)
  17. Give the meaning of the term "pan Africanism" (1 mark)
  18. Give one function of the Supreme Court in India (1 mark)

SECTION B: (45 MARKS).

(Answer any three questions in this section).

  1.  
    1. What were the physical changes which occurred to early human beings as they evolved from ape -like creatures to modern people (3 marks).
    2. Describe the way of life of early human beings during the Old Stone Age period (12 marks).
  2.  
    1. State three factors that led to the decline of Kilwa as an early urban centre. (3 marks)
    2. Give six ways in which the problems facing Nairobi city can be solved.  (12 marks)
  3.  
    1. State five reasons why it took too long for Mozambique to achieve political independence from Portugal (5 marks)
    2. Give five reasons that encouraged the nationalists in Mozambique to use armed struggle to attain independence (10 marks)
  4.  
    1. Outline three factors that enabled Tanzania to maintain national unity since independence. (3 marks)
    2. State six ways in which poverty has undermined economic development in Tanzania since independence. (12 marks)

SECTION C: (30 MARKS).

(Answer any two questions in this section).

  1.  
    1. List five functions of the general assembly of the United Nations (5 marks)
    2. Describe five ways in which the UN Security Council promotes world peace (10marks)
  2.  
    1. Identify five roles of Kwame Nkrumah in Pan-African movement. (5 marks)
    2. Highlight the achievements of Pan-Africanism (10 marks)
  3.  
    1. State three responsibilities of state governments in India (3 marks)
    2. What are the functions of the prime minister in India? (12 marks)


Marking Scheme

  1. Identify one type of artefact that is likely to be found in an archaeological site (1 mark)
    • Tools
    • Weapons
    • Pottery
    • Ornaments
    • Garments
    • coins
  2. State one disadvantage of using caves as shelters by the early human beings during the Stone Age period (1 mark)
    • Caves could collapse over them
    • Wild creatures could bite them
    • Human enemies could easily attack them
    • Caves were exposed to cold/wind/floods
  3. Give two main reasons that promoted the development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia (2 marks).
    • Availability of fertile soils/silt from river valleys
    • Availability of water for irrigation from river Tigris and Euphrates
  4. State two ways in which poor transport systems have contributed to food shortages in Africa.(2 marks).
    • Have led to high transport costs leading to high prices of food.
    • Have led to poor distribution of food
    • Have led to delays in the transportation of food leading to waste and loses.
    • Demoralizes/discourages farmers and this leads to low agricultural productions
    • It undermines the effectiveness of agricultural extension officers.
    • Agricultural inputs do not reach the farms leading to low yields.
  5. Give the method used to acquire slaves from West Africa during the Trans Atlantic trade (1 mk)
    • Those who had debts were sold to slave traders/panyaring.
    • Through raiding African villages and selling the captives.
    • Slave traders kidnapped lonely travellers.
    • Some slave traders enticed people/children with gifts and selling the captives.
    • Criminals were sold to slave trader by their local rulers.
    • Slaves were exchanged for European manufactured goods.
    • Prisoners of war were sold to slave dealers.
    • The weak in the society such as orphans and widows were sold to the slave traders.
  6. State two disadvantages of using air transport (2 marks)
    • It is expensive to maintain an aircraft.
    • Airports are very expensive to build
    • The aircrafts can only land and take off in specific/designated areas thus inconveniencing the users.
    • Aircrafts cannot carry bulky or heavy goods
    • It is very expensive to travel by air.
    • In case of accidents, losses are very high since there are few survivors.
    • Bad weather affects air transport leading to delays and re-schedules.
    • Aircraft have become a target of high jacking and terrorist attacks which are very costly in terms of loss of lives and property
    • Aircrafts emits gases which contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere.
    • Running airlines requires specialised skills and personnel who are very expensive to train.
    • It requires a lot of land to put an airport.
  7. Give one factor which should be considered when sending a message. (1 mark)
    • The urgency of the message/time/speed.
    • The availability of means of communication/communication facilities/methods.
    • The distance between the sender and the receiver of the message.
    • The complexity of the message/simplicity/clarity.
    • The cost of sending a message.
  8. State two advantages of the use of electricity in industries during the industrial revolution. (2 marks)
    • The supply could be regulated/could be switched on and off.
    • There was a clean working environment since electricity is non-pollutant.
    • Electricity could be used for various purposes such as lightning, heating.
    • Electricity could be used for from the source/industries could be established anywhere
    • Electricity made the cost of production of goods cheaper.
    • Electricity could be produced from many sources such as water and petrol.
    • Many industries could-draw electricity at one point
  9. State the main factor that led to the growth of Meroe as an early urban centre in Africa. (1 mark)
    • Mining of iron ore/ iron working industry
  10. Give two functions of the Kabaka of Buganda (2 marks).
    • He was the head of government
    • He was the commander -in chief of the armed forces
    • He appointed or dismissed senior officials in the government
    • He was the supreme judge
    • He was the chief priest/in charge of all religious activities/head of traditional religion
    • He controlled trade
  11. Give one term of the Buganda agreement of 1900 (1mark)
    • The Kabaka was recognized by the British as the ruler of the Baganda although his powers were limited.
    • Half of the land was made crown land and people allowed to live on it as tenants.
    • A hut tax or three rupees and a gum tax were imposed.
    • Buganda was recognized by the British as a kingdom within the Uganda protectorate.
  12. Give two differences between the British and the French system of administration during the colonial rule (2 marks)
    • "The British mainly used indirect rule while the French adopted assimilation and association policy
    • The French undermined African chieftaincics while the British gave the traditional rulers a lot of power.
    • French colonies were governed as federations equated to provinces of France while British colonies were administered separately by a governor.
    • Most of the French administrators were military officers while the British used a mixture of amateurs and professionals.
    • The British were keen to appoint traditional rulers as chiefs while the French simply handpicked individuals who met their qualifications.
    • The British colonies had Legco's where policies were debated in the colonies while the French colonies elected their representatives to the Chamber of Deputies in France.
    • Laws applied in French colonies were legislated in France while in British colonies laws were enacted by the respective Legco's.
    • Assimilated Africans in the French colonies became French citizens with full rights while the elite in British colonies remained colonial subjects.
    • Indirect rule preserved African cultures while assimilation undermined them.
  13. Name one political party that fought for independence in Ghana (1mark)
    • The United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC)
    • The Convention Peoples Party (CPP)
    • The National League of the Gold Coast (NLGC)
  14. In what way did the First World War contribute to the rise of the Second World War? (1 mark)
    • It led to the rise of dictators e.g. Adolf Hitler who later became architects of the Second World War
    • The terms of the Versailles treaty angered many Germans who wanted to reverse the situation
  15. What is 'veto power in the United Nations Security Council?(1 mark)
    • Power exercised by any permanent member to stop an official action/resolution made by the UNO.
  16. State two political challenges that faced Tanzania during the rule of President Mwalimu Nyerere (2 marks)
    • 1964 Army mutiny over delayed African promotions
    • Protests by universities of Dar-es-Salaam students in 1966 over National Youth Service
    • President Idi Amin attacked Tanzania
    • The country hosted large number of refugees from war torn neighbouring countries
    • The failure of the Ujamaa Policy
    • The assassination of Abeidi Karume
    • Ideological differences between Tanganyika who were pro-east and Zanzibar who were pro-west.
  17. Give the meaning of the term "pan Africanism"(1 mark)
    • Pan-Africanism is a movement that aims at uniting all people of African descent all over the World
      18. Give one function of the Supreme Court in India (1 mark)
    • Resolving disputes between the union government and one or more states
    • Interprets the constitution/guardian of the constitution
    • Handles appellate jurisdiction of any case.
  18.  
    1. What were the physical changes which occurred to early human beings as they evolved from ape -like creatures to modern people (3 marks).
      • The skull was enlarged
      • The jaws and teeth became smaller
      • The hands and arms became shorter
      • The creatures assumed an upright posture
      • The feet and toes reduced in size
      • The creatures had less hair on the body
      • They became taller
      • They had slender body
      • Their brain became bigger (b).
    2. Describe the way of life of early human beings during the Old Stone Age period (12 marks).
      • They made simple stone tools for domestic use/oldowan tools
      • Lived in small groups in order to assist each other
      • They obtained their food through hunting and gathering
      • They used simple hunting methods such as easing wild animals and laying traps
      • They ate raw food because fire had not been invented
      • They had no specific dwelling places
      • They sheltered from predators by climbing trees and hiding in caves
      • They wore no clothing but their hairy bodies kept them warm
      • They lived near rivers and lakes
  19.  
    1. State three factors that led to the decline of Kilwa as an early urban centre. (3 marks)
      • Disruption of the gold trade due to frequent wars between the various African communities.
      • Attack and occupation of Kilwa by the Portuguese who plundered the town.
      • Dynastic quarrels among the Persian rulers (sultans) in Kilwa led to disunity in the town.
      • Rise of rival trading centres such as Mombasa and Lamu reduced the towns importance.
      • Insubordination from towns controlled by Kilwa such as Sofala.
    2. Give six ways in which the problems facing Nairobi city can be solved. (12 marks)
      • Developing new housing projects to upgrade the slums.
      • Constructing dual-carriage ways to ease traffic congestion.
      • Encouraging the expansion of informal sector to provide alternative employment.
      • Encouraging the Rehabilitating street families, for example by taking the children to schools where they acquire skills to help them in self employment.
      • Initiating new water projects to supply water to the residents.
      • Setting up organizations to sensitize people on HIV/AIDS
      • Setting up more social services such as schools, and hospitals to reduce the strain imposed on them.
      • Government has entered into partnership with the private sector investment in the service sector.
      • The city of Nairobi has sent delegations to other major cities in the world in order to gain from their experiences, so that they can improve on the service delivery.
  20.  
    1. State five reasons why it took too long for Mozambique to achieve political independence from Portugal (5 marks)
      • Portugal was reluctant to part with the economic wealth of Mozambique.
      • Portugal was ruled by kings who had no regards for human rights.
      • Portugal had succeeded in suppressing revolts by Africans before nationalism took root in Mozambique.
      • Lack of unity among African until 1960's
      • llliteracy among Africans in Mozambique.
    2. Give five reasons that encouraged the nationalists in Mozambique to use armed struggle to attain independence (10 marks).
      • Portugal refused to listen to the grievances of Africans.
      • The nationalists were trained in fighting skills.
      • The liberation committee of the organization of African unity/Tanzania and other (OAU) supported the nationalists with finance and weapons.
      • The nationalists were supported and encouraged by communist countries
      • The success of MAU MAU freedom fighters in Kenya inspired them.
      • The country was forested and conducive for guerrilla warfare.
      • The United Nations (UN) denounced colonialism thus boosting the morale of the nationalists.
  21.  
    1. Outline three factors that enabled Tanzania to maintain national unity since independence (3 marks).
      • Adherence to the policy of socialism/Ujamaa
      • Application of the constitution
      • Use of Kiswahili as a national language
      • Leadership that was willing to embrace change
    2. State six ways in which poverty has undermined economic development in Tanzania since independence (12 marks),
      • It has reduced the purchasing power of many people unable to access good/services
      • It has made it difficult for Tanzania to compete favourably with other countries.
      • It has resulted to dependency of foreign aid/loans.
      • It has made it dificult to fully exploit the resources/mineral/land.
      • It has led to low infrastructure development/roads/railways
      • led to slow industrial growth as people's purchasing power is low
  22.  
    1. List live functions of the general assembly of the United Nations (5 marks).
      • It liaises with the Security Council in making recommendation on maintenance of peace security
      • Discussed issues related to international peace/ security
      • It elects jointly with the Security Council the judges of the international court of justice/appoints secretary general.
      • It receives/acts on report from Security Council and other UN organs.
      • Approves UN budget.
      • It admits/suspends/dismisses member states from the UN with the recommendations of the Security Council.
      • Elects non permanent members of the security/economic/social fields.
      • lt promotes International Corporation in political/economic/social fields.
      • It promotes the development/qualification of the international law.
      • It facilitates the realization of human rights/fundamental freedoms.
      • It promotes higher/ better standards of living among nations.
    2. Describe five ways in which the UN Security Council promotes world peace (10marks)
      • It calls some members to provide forces or to facilitate military aggression to some members
      • They investigate any dispute situation that may lead to international friction.
      • To maintain international peace and security through advising members on ways of settling disputes peacefully.
      • It calls upon member states to solve their disputes peacefully
      • It admits/suspends and expels members from the UN.
      • It may decide what military action is to be taken by members.
      • It regulates the production and use of dangerous arms such as nuclear bombs.
      • It can authorize diplomatic/economic sanctions against aggressive states
  23.  
    1. Identify five roles of Kwame Nkrumah in Pan-African movement. (5 marks)
      • He launched West Africa national secretariat to coordinate plans for West African countries under colonial rule.
      • He led the convention people's party that led Ghana to independence in 1957.
      • He inspired many African countries to struggle for political independence.
      • He hosted a conference for all independent African countries in 1958.
      • He hosted the all African people's conference in 1958.
      • Participated as the secretary of the 1945 pan-African conference in Manchester.
    2. Highlight the achievements of pan-Africanism (10 marks)
      • It created awareness among the black people about the common experiences/suffering and promoted active nationalism/struggle for independence in colonized Africa
      • It promoted a forum for black people to voice their grievances/discuss their internal/external affairs.
      • It nurtured the spirit of solidarity among the black people.
      • It encouraged corporation among African leaders and states towards decolonization.
      • It laid the foundation for the interest in research on African culture/history/music/religion.
      • It laid the foundation for the establishment of the O.A.U in 1963.
      • It was a step towards the restoration of the status and dignity of African people.
  24.  
    1. State three responsibilities of state governments in India (3marks)
      • Enacting laws for the state which should not contradict union laws
      • Maintenance of security/law and order within the states
      • Supervision of education within the state
      • Regulation of commerce in the state
      • Construction/Maintenance of transport and communication network within the state.
    2. What are the functions of the prime minister in India? (12 marks)
      • Heads the council of ministers and government
      • Advices the president on the exercise of his functions/appointment of senior officers of government
      • Represents India in International fora
      • Chairs cabinet meetings
      • Recommends persons for the award of civil honours and distinctions
      • Can dissolve the Lok Sabha with the advice of the president
      • Communicates to the president all decisions of the council of ministers, relating to the administration of the affairs of the union and proposals for legislation.
      • He is answerable to the parliament about the operations of various government departments

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