MOKASA Joint Evaluation Examination History Paper 1 2016- Pre MOCK

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Section A (25 marks)
Answer all questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. Give the source of information on history and government which deals with scientific analysis of man’s material culture. (1 mark)

    Archaeology

  2. Which was the most common political authority in pre-colonial Kenya? (1 mark)

    Council of elders

  3. Identify two duties of Orkoiyot among the Nandi during the pre-colonial period (2 marks)

    -He presided over religious functions.
    -Advised the council of elders on running of the community.
    -Advised and blessed warriors before raids and war.
    -Foretold the future.
    -Acted as rainmaker and medicine man.
    -Arbitrated in cases of disputes between clans.
    -Acted as a political leader and was consulted on matters of transfer of power from one age-group to the other.

  4. What was the main negative effect of plantation agriculture on the people of Kenya coast. (1 mark)

     It promoted slave trade

  5. State two terms of Anglo-Germany Treaty of 1890. (2 marks)

    -Germany abandoned her claim over Witu in exchange of Heligo land.
    -Germany officially recognized that Uganda was a British sphere. British also laid claim over Kenya and the sultan of Zanzibar’s dominion.
    -Germany acquired a strip of land on L.Tanganyika and purchased the coast of Tanganyika from sultan of Zanzibar.
    -The sultan of Zanzibar retained the 16-km coastal strip.

  6. What was the main importance of the Devonshire white paper of 1923? (1 mark)

     It declared that African’s interests are to be given a priority.

  7. State two economic benefits of the Kenya Uganda railway during the colonial period. (1 mark)

    -It facilitated the transportation of goods and services.
    -It led to the development of urban centres.
    -It facilitated the movement of traders/promoted trade
    -It opened up the interior for economic development e.g. plantation, agriculture and industry.
    -It led to the creation of employment opportunities.
    -It led to the development of other forms of transport and communication e.g. roads and telecommunications.
    -It was a major source of revenue for colonial authority.

  8. State two immediate events that led the Governor to declare a state of emergency in the colony in October 1952. (1mark)

     The assassination of Chief Waruhiu Wa Kungu.

  9. Name the first African to be nominated to the legislative council in Kenya. (1mark)

     Eliud Mathu

  10. State two features of political associations that were formed in Kenya between 1920-1939. (2marks)

    -Led by educated young men who had organizational ability.
    -There was a tendency towards inter-regional co-operational although most of the organizations were confined to one or two ethnic communities with exception of (EAA).
    -The grievances were similar e.g. land alienation.
    -Their demands focused mainly on the welfare of the people.

  11. Identify two education bodies that appeared among the Agikuyu during the colonial period. (2marks)

    -Kikuyu Independent Schools Association (KISA)
    -The Kikuyu Karinga Education Association (KKEA)

  12. Give two objectives of Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU). (2marks)

    -To safeguard the interests of minority tribes.
    -To provide an efficient organ that represents all areas of Kenya.
    -To push for a federal constitution.
    -To formulate domestic and international policies for Kenya.
    -To organize and maintain a political democratic union in the Legco and the country.
    -Demand for release of political prisoners.
    -Demand for constitutional reforms.

  13. Name any two women warriors who were involved in the Mau Mau movement. (2marks)

    -Marshal Muthoni.
    -Nduta Wa Kore.
    -Elizabeth Gachika.
    -Wamboi Wagarama

  14. Identify one political challenge faced by Daniel arap Moi as the president of Kenya. (1mark)

    -Pressure from multi party activists
    -Human rights violation/ arrest and torture of government critics.
    -Political assassinations e.g. Robert Ouko in 1990.
    -The 1982 attempted coup

  15. Identify the parliamentary symbol of authority. (1 mark)

     The mace

  16. Mention two units that make up the national police units in Kenya. (2marks)

    -The Kenya police service.
    -The administration police service.

  17. State the main function of the attorney General in Kenya. (1mark)

     Advising the National government as the principal legal advisor.

    Section B (45 marks)
    Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

    1. Give five reasons for the migration of the highland Nilotes into Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (5 marks)

      -Due to increase in population
      -They were searching for fertile land for cultivation.
      -They were looking for additional pastures and water for their livestock.
      -Internal conflicts or family and clan feuds.
      -Due to external attacks from hostile communities.
      -Diseases and epidemics forced them to migrate.
      -To escape drought and famine.
      -To satisfy their desire for adventure and curiosity.

    2. Describe the social organization of the Borana during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)

      -The nuclear family was the smallest social unit with the father as the head.
      -Related families made up the extended family/clan.
      -Many related families lived in temporary camps near grazing areas but came together during ceremonial rites.
      -They were organized into clans who traced their origin to a common ancestor.
      -They were organized into age sets made up of boys circumcised during the same period.
      -They had an age grade system ranging from infancy to old age each having its own rights and duties.
      -There existed other special people who were respected like medicine people and prophets.
      -They believed in a supreme God called Waq/ Wak/ Waa whom they offered individual and family prayers.
      -The head of the family offered sacrifices at every new moon.
      -They had religious shrines where they offered prayers and sacrifices.
      -They believed in ancestral spirits who protected the living. Prayers and sacrifices were offered to them.
      -They had patrilineal society where inheritance was from the father to the first born son who then redistributed the wealth to his younger brothers.

    1. State five characteristics of the early coastal city states. (5 marks)

      -The people lived in settlements that were politically independent of each other.
      -The settlements were ruled by Muslim leaders e.g. Sultans.
      -Majority of the inhabitants of the city states were Muslims.
      -The people who lived in the city states spoke Kiswahili.
      -They participated in the Indian Ocean trade.
      -The architectural designs of their houses were influenced by Arabian and Persian designs.
      -They fished in the Indian Ocean.
      -They practiced weaving and spinning.
      -They minted their own coins.
      -The city states were ruled according to Islamic Sharia law.
      -Their way of dressing was influenced by Arabian way of dressing/culture like wearing buibui by women and kanzu by men.
      -Education was based on Madrassa and the language used was Arabic

    2. Explain five effects of missionary activities in Kenya. (10 marks)

      -They converted many Africans to Christianity
      -They introduced western education to Africa.
      -They established mission hospitals where people were treated of various diseases as well as training medical personnel.
      -They advocated for the abolition of slave trade and established stations for freed and runaway slaves like Frere Town.
      -They translated the Bible in to local languages like Dr. Krapf translated it to Kiswahili.
      -They introduced new crops like coffee together with new farming methods.
      -They introduced new architectural designs by building fine churches and other buildings.
      -They carried out the exploration of the continent
      -They spread their European culture leading to eradication of inhuman practices like slave trade and witch craft.
      -They caused disunity among the Africans e.g. between the converted and the traditionalist.
      -The restrictive nature of Christian missionaries and their stand on African traditions led to the establishment of independent churches by the Africans.
      -They established transport systems like roads.
      -The promoted European colonization.
      -Their activities led to the emergence of African nationalism.

    1. State five problems faced by the European settlers in Kenya. (5 marks)

      -Africans were unwilling to provide labour to the settlers.
      -The settlers were not familiar with the climatic conditions in the region/seasons.
      -Lack of knowledge about diseases and pests hence lost their crops and livestock.
      -They were not sure of crops that could do well in certain areas.
      -Lack of market for their produce.
      -Undeveloped transport networks in some regions.
      -Lack of experience in farming since a number of them had not engaged in farming before.
      -Lack of funds hence many became bankrupt.
      -African uprisings affected their farming activities.
      -Theft of livestock by African communities.

    2. Explain five results of the Maasai collaboration with the British. (10 marks)

      -The Maasai lost their independence.
      -They were employed as mercenaries to subdue resisting communities like the Nandi.
      -The Maasai were rewarded with cattle acquired from un co-operative communities like Nandi.
      -Their land was alienated and they were pushed to the reserves.
      -Lenana was made the paramount chief of the Maasai.
      -It led to conflict between Lanana and Legalishu over the land given to the British.
      -They allowed the British to build their railway through their territory.
      -The British supported Lenana against Sendeiyo in 1894 succession disputes.
      -They were protected against raids from their neighbours.

    1. Give five challenges faced by independent churches and schools during the colonial period. (5 marks)

      -Opposition from missionary churches.
      -Inadequate facilities like buildings and teaching materials.
      -Lack of ordained church ministers.
      -Restriction by the colonial government which prohibited the opening of schools and banning others.
      -Lack of co-ordination which resulted in rivalry e.g. between KISA and KKEA.
      -Shortage of funds to carry out their activities well.
      -They lacked a nationalistic outlook as they were restricted to small areas
      -The colonial government created Local Native Councils as rival bodies through which Africans channeled their demands hence weakening them.

    2. Describe the role played by Ronald Ngala in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10 marks)

      -In 1947 he became a member of the Coast African Association through which he expressed the problems and hopes of the Mijikenda people.
      -He also mobilized the Mijikenda into forming a pressure group called the Mijikenda union to fight for their rights
      -He was the founder member of the Mombasa African Democratic Union (MADU) in 1955 to struggle for independence
      -As a member of the African Elected Members Association (AEMO) Ngala pressurized for the constitutional reforms for the Africans.
      -In 1958, he was appointed minister for Labour, Social Security and Adult Education a post he used in the struggle
      -He was instrumental in the formation of Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) to defend the interests of the minority African groups against possible domination by Kenya African National Union (KANU) and he became its the president.
      -He led the African delegation which attended the Lancaster House Conference to draft the independence constitution.
      -He supported and called for the release of detained leaders through public rallies.
      -In 1961, KADU under the leadership of Ngala formed the first independent government with New Kenya Party.
      -He advocated for equal living standards for all races in Kenya.

      Section C (30 marks)
      Answer any two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

    1. State three survival rights of a child in Kenya. (3 marks)

      -Right to life
      -Right to name and identity with a nation/ nationality or a group of people.
      -Good medical care like vaccination and medical treatment.
      -Good clothing to protect the child from cold and adverse weather conditions to prevent him or her from sickness.
      -Good shelter for good health and living.
      -Right to good food especially balanced diet.

    2. Explain six responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen. (12 marks)

      -To contribute to positive development of the country through hard work regardless of the job one is doing
      -Participate in all democratic processes in the country like elections and referendum.
      -Contribute positively ones’ views on issues affecting the community like taking part in debates.
      -Report law breakers and those intending to break the law.
      -Be mindful of other peoples’ welfare law like assisting the disabled, the aged, children and the less fortunate in the society.
      -Ensure proper utilization of public and private facilities and property
      -Maintain high moral and ethical standards in the society.

    1. Give three reasons why elections are important in Kenya. (3 marks)

      -To give citizens a chance to choose leaders whom they have confidence in.
      -It is a constitutional requirement that elections are done after five years.
      -To enable Kenyans to have a new government.
      -To enable Kenyans to remove non performing leaders.
      -To enable Kenyans to exercise their democratic right of voting.
      -To enable people to give mandate to the party of their choice to rule.
      -To enable leaders to be responsive to the development needs of the electorate.

    2. Describe the law making process in Kenya. (12 marks)

      -A New Bill is drafted in the Attorney Generals Chamber (Parliamentary Counsel) or by lawyers if it is a private members Bill and published in the Kenya Gazette at least fourteen days before introduction in parliament.
      -The bill is then introduced into the parliament during the First Reading by the Clerk of the National Assembly reads the title of the Bill and the Cabinet Secretary who proposed the Bill moves the motion that the Bill be referred to the relevant Departmental Committee who then scrutinizes it.
      -The Bill is then presented in parliament for the Second Reading by the Cabinet Secretary in charge for further debate and improvements.
      -The Bill is then taken through the Committee Stage with an aim of making improvements on it including those of the previous stage.
      -The Bill is then taken to the Report Stage for members of parliament to ensure that their suggestions were accurately effected. Voting then takes place and if it is approved, it then goes to the next stage.
      -The Bill is taken to the Third Reading. Members discuss and vote on it. Further amendments may be made. If it is approved it then goes to the next stage.
      -The finalized Bill is then taken to the president for his/her assent after which it becomes a new law/ statute or an act of parliament. The new law is then published in the Kenya Gazette (Gazetted) for public knowledge and awareness and for law enforcement officers to know.

    1. Give three factors which may undermine the effectiveness of the traffic police in Kenya. (3 marks)

      -Large number of vehicles on the roads
      -Poor conditions of roads
      -Inadequate facilities like vehicles
      -Lack of public support
      -Corruption/bribery
      -Poor remunerations/salaries
      -Poor conditions of many vehicles

    2. Explain six functions of the Kenya Defense Forces. (12 marks)

      -They defend the country from external attacks through deterring those who might want to invade Kenya and also resisting actual invasion.
      -They assist the police in the maintenance of law and order like suppressing riots and other civil disturbances.
      -They provide emergency services during national disasters like floods, earthquakes and uncontrollable fire.
      -They assist in nation building activities like road and bridge construction.
      -They participate in international peace keeping for maintenance of peace and security in areas ravaged by war.
      -They provide entertainment during national functions.
      -The Kenya navy patrols Kenya’s territorial water and check against illegal docking and unauthorized fishing.
      -Preventing unauthorized entry of aeroplanes and vessels into Kenyan territorial waters and air space.


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