MOKASA Joint Evaluation Examination History Paper 2 2016- Pre MOCK

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Section A (25 marks)

  1. Give the name of the tools made by early man during the New Stone Age period (1 mark)

    Microlithic tools

  2. State two distinct characteristics of Homo Erectus. (2 marks)

    -Was upright/ bipedal or walked on two legs.
    -The brain capacity was ranged from 700cc and 1250 cc./ Had higher thinking capacity.
    -Had more developed speech than earlier creatures
    -Had more developed hand for grasping objects
    -Had long skull
    -Had protruding jaws.
    -Was about five feet, six inches tall

  3. Identify one form of writing during the early civilizations resulting from early agriculture. (1 mark)

    -Hieroglyphics
    -Cuneiform

  4. State two factors that promoted large-scale farming in Britain during the Agrarian Revolution. (2 marks)

    -Invention of machines for extensive farming.
    -Discovery of fertilizers which led to high yields
    -Discovery of pesticides and fungicides facilitated control of diseases.
    -Improvement of transport especially the railway
    -Discovery of canning and refrigeration
    -High demand of food by the increasing urban population
    -Demand for agricultural and industrial raw materials
    -Reclamation of wastelands giving rise to more arable land
    -Development of new breeds of crops through research
    -Migration of people to towns created room for plantation farming in rural areas.
    -The enclosure system pushed people out of the rural areas thus creating room for plantation farming.
    -Abolition of fallows ensured no loss of production.

  5. State two ways in which poor transport system has contributed to food shortages in Africa. (2 marks)

    -Poor transport has led to high transport costs thus high prices of food
    -It has led to poor distribution of food
    -It causes delays in transportation of food leading to wastages and losses
    -It demoralizes farmers leading to low agricultural production
    -It undermines the effectiveness of agricultural extension officers
    -Agricultural inputs do not easily reach the farms leading to poor production

  6. Identify two political benefits of Trans-Saharan-trade to the people of Western Sudan. (2 marks)

    -Development of kingdoms like Mali and Songhai
    -Introduction of weapons for defence/creation of strong armies
    -Emergence of powerful leaders
    -Introduction of Sharia/Islamic law to be used in administration
    -Establishment of diplomatic ties between West Africa and North Africa

  7. State two characteristics of Macadam roads. (2 marks)

    -They are all weather roads
    -They are durable.
    -Water drain off with ease.
    -They were smooth hence providing good motoring surface
    -They are wide.
    -They are straight

  8. Give one early source of energy. (1 mark)

    -Wood
    -Wind
    -Water
    -Direct use of sunlight

  9. State two political results of industrial Revolution in Europe. (2 marks)

    -It led to scramble and partition of Africa
    -It gave rise to Marxism ideology that condemned capitalism

  10. State one contribution of Joseph Lister in the field of medicine in the nineteenth century. (1 mark)

     He discovered the use of antiseptics in surgery.

  11. Identify two factors that facilitated colonization of Africa in the nineteenth century. (2 marks)

    -There was disunity among African communities.
    -The Africans lacked modern weapons.
    -African warriors were not well trained like the Europeans.
    -Some communities had earlier been weakened by diseases and other natural calamities.
    -Some African leaders collaborated with the Europeans.
    -Some African communities lacked strong leadership.
    -Europeans received reinforcements or military back up from home and from other colonies.
    -Some communities were demoralized after their leaders were captured and even killed.
    -The European troops used ruthless war tactics like scorched earth policy which destroyed the economic base of most communities thus weakening them.

  12. Give one reason why the Shona supported the British forces against the Ndebele during the Anglo-Ndebele war of 1893. (1 mark)

    -To stop raids from the Ndebele
    -They did not want to be ruled by Ndebele

  13. State one reason why Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda collaborated with the British. (1 mark)

    -He wanted protection from both internal enemies especially the religious groups such as traditionalists, Muslims, Catholics and Protestants.
    -He wanted protection against external enemies like the Bunyoro.
    -He also wanted to secure his position as a leader.
    -He wanted the British to help him gain regional supremacy over the surrounding kingdoms like Ankole, Toro and Bunyoro.

  14. Give two political developments in South Africa which facilitated establishment of a multi-racial government. (2 marks)

    -Release all the political prisoners
    -Repeal of Apartheid laws
    -Africans were allowed to take part in elections
    -Lifting the ban on political parties
    -Removal of P.W. Botha, the apartheid hard line leader

  15. Give the name given to Germany and her supporters during the First World War. (1 mark)

     Triple Alliance/Central powers

  16. Give the main reason why the League of Nations was established in 1919. (1 mark)

     To promote peace in the world

    Section B (45 marks)

    1. State five reasons why man turned from hunting and gathering to agriculture. (5 marks)

      -The need to supplement hunting and gathering which was tedious/ tiring.
      -Overhunting depleted stocks of animals on which human beings relied on for food.
      -The realization that some animals were social e.g. a cat
      -Presence of indigenous crops like wheat and barley.
      -Some crops and animals had economic value
      -Migration of animals made man to seek an alternative source/ reduction of animal population/ calamities such as bush fires/floods destroyed vegetation and drove away animals.
      -Climatic changes which caused poor root and fruit yields/ weather at sometimes hindered gathering and hunting.
      -Development of improved tools which enabled effective cultivation of crops.
      -Increase in human population led to high demand for food.
      -There was competition for food between human beings and animals

    2. Explain five effects of Agrarian revolution in United States of America (USA). (10 marks)

      -Many parts of the U.S.A have been opened up for both settlement and agriculture.
      -Manufacturing centers and urban areas in general are easily fed.
      -Adequate food has promoted urbanization/rural urban migration.
      -Expansion of industries as a result of raw materials from the agricultural sector
      -Mechanization in the farms has helped to release many people for jobs in industries/rural-urban migration.
      -Exports of farm products earn the country foreign exchange.
      -Plenty of food has led to increase in population.
      -Food is regularly donated for humanitarian purposes in different parts of the world.
      -It led to improvement in transport and communication.
      -It encouraged the shipping of slaves mainly from Africa to work in the farms.

    1. Identify five ways in which iron working spread in Africa. (5 marks)

      -Through trading activities as it was a trade item.
      -Through migration of communities like the Bantu.
      -Travellers and messengers may have introduced and copied the art from other communities.
      -Through warfare between communities as iron weapons were used.
      -Through professional smiths.
      -Through conquest and occupation by communities.

    2. Explain five factors that led to emergence of Japan as an industrial power. (10 marks)

      -The government made education compulsory and encouraged research leading to creative ideas.
      -People were encouraged to study abroad leading to technological advancement.
      -There was financial assistance from the USA for industrialization.
      -The availability of raw materials like coal, cotton and iron from within and outside Japan
      -The culture of hard work among the Japanese.
      -The government policies encouraged local and foreign investment.
      -The cheap and skillfully made products attracted markets locally and abroad.
      -The topography was unsuitable for agriculture. This made her to develop other sectors thus diversifying the economy.
      -The development of hydro electric power provided energy for industrialization.
      -The prevailing peace in the country promoted industrial development.
      -Improvement in transport accelerated the process of industrialization.
      -Availability of skilled and unskilled labour.

    1. Give five causes of the Maji Maji rebellion of 1905 to 1907 in Tanganyika. (5 marks)

      -Cruelty and brutality of the German colonial administrator’s especially of the Akidas and Jumbes.
      -Forced labour on German plantations and other works which dehumanized the Africans.
      -African labourers were given low wages in the communal cotton scheme established by the Germans
      -Imposition of taxes e.g. hut tax which provoked resentment among the Africans.
      -Compulsory growing of cotton on unsuitable soil hence poor yields.
      -The Africans wanted to regain their lost independence.
      -Disrespect of African cultures by the German administrators’ e.g. in Uginda where the Germans misbehaved with the Ngindo women.
      -The charismatic role played by Kinjenkitile in using religion to unite the people of Southern Tanganyika against the Germans.
      -Land alienation by the Germans for the growing of cash crops e.g. cotton
      -The Germans despised and disrespected the African religious beliefs.
      -There existed trade rivalries between the Germans and Africans.
      -The Ngoni were seeking revenge for the massacre of 1898 where a large number of them were killed and their property looted and destroyed by the Germans.

    2. Explain five reasons why Samori Toure resisted the French for so long. (10 marks)

      -He wanted to maintain his independence from the French interference.
      -He wanted to protect his gold fields especially the Bure mines from French exploitation.
      -He wanted to retain his authority as a leader i.e. as Al- Imam, a title he adopted in 1874.
      -He wanted to protect his trade which earned him revenue to purchase arms and ammunitions.
      -He wanted to safeguard Islam form Christian influence/ He was fighting a holy war (Jihad).
      -He had a strong army and weapons thus had confidence in his army.
      -He wanted to preserve Mandinka culture.
      -He was unhappy with French’s activities of selling arms to his enemies like Tiebba of Sikasso.
      -He wanted to protect the Mandinka land from European occupation.

    1. Give five qualifications for one to be assimilated in Senegal. (5 marks)

      -Ability to speak French
      -A distinguished record in the military service
      -Acquisition of a set standard of education
      -The practice of monogamy
      -Show good conduct
      -Be reasonably rich
      -Show loyalty to the French government
      -A distinguished record in the colonial service administration for at least 10 years

    2. Describe five effects of direct rule in Zimbabwe. (10 marks)

      -It led to land alienation resulting in displacement of Africans.
      -The African traditional rulers lost their independence.
      -Africans had limited rights since the day-to-day running was in the hands of British without much reference to African interests.
      -Africans were subjected to heavy taxation.
      -Africans were subjected to forced labour.
      -British South Africa Company was given too much power in the administration of the colony.
      -It undermined African economy as some worked in the white farms.
      -Led to the development of transport network in the country.
      -It led to introduction of new crops.
      -It led to introduction of Western education into the country.
      -It led to spread of Christianity in the country.
      -Africans were denied freedom of movement by being confined in reserves and required to carry identity cards.
      -It led to the rise of African nationalism in the country.

      SECTION C (30 MARKS)

    1. State three economic activities of the Baganda during the pre-colonial period. (3 marks)

      -They were cultivators of crops like bananas, millet and sorghum.
      -They kept animals
      -Fishing on Lake Victoria was also an important economic activity.
      -They took part in local, regional and international trade
      -Iron working was also done and they made weapons and farm tools.
      -Salt mining was also practiced by the Baganda.
      -They practiced craft working like weaving, pottery and canoe making.
      -They manufactured bark clothes
      -They also took part in hunting and gathering.

    2. Describe the social organization of Asante Kingdom in the eighteenth Century. (12 marks)

      -The kingdom was composed of many communities who spoke Akan or Twi language.
      -The Asante were organized in clans.
      -Marriage between members of the same clan was prohibited. They practiced exogamy and polygamy.
      -Inheritance of property was matrilineal.
      -The community was bound together by the Golden Stool.
      -There was an annual cultural festival (odwira) held at Kumasi to honour the ancestors.
      -The society was divided into social classes (social stratification).
      -The Asante worshipped many gods and goddesses.
      -The King, chiefs and Omanhenes were religious leaders (semi divine).
      -The ancestors mediated between god and the people.
      -They believed in a supreme god called Onyame.

    1. Identify three roles of the church in promoting African Nationalism in South Africa. (3 marks)

      -It spoke against injustice carried out by the apartheid regime.
      -They condemned racial discrimination in the pulpit and at meetings and functions in various places.
      -They were involved in mass mobilization of the Christian followers to fight apartheid policies
      -They carried out massive civic education hence people became aware of their rights.
      -They appealed to other churches and governments abroad to come and rescue the suffering blacks.
      -They provided welfare services to the displaced people during the period of struggle as well as to asylum seekers.
      -They contributed morally and materially to the liberation struggle.
      -The press/media owned by the churches joined in condemning apartheid besides highlighting the plight of the people to the outside world.

    2. Explain six problems encountered by African Nationalists in South Africa. (12 marks)

      -The nationalists were arrested/ detained which crippled their activities thereby slowing down the struggle.
      -The political parties were banned by the government making it difficult for nationalists to coordinate their activities.
      -The government enacted pass laws which restricted movement thus hampering their interactions.
      -They lacked adequate funds to finance the struggle thus slowing their operations.
      -They lacked press freedom making it difficult for them to spread their ideas.
      -They lacked advanced weapons thereby making them less effective in their armed struggle.
      -They had different approaches in their struggle (moderated/ radical wings) thus creating a loophole which was exploited by the government.
      -Some nationalists were killed, which led to low morale hence slowing down the momentum of the struggle.
      -Use of divide and rule policy to divide the Africans.
      -Nationalists were always trailed by secret police on apartheid information.
      -Many nationalists were forced to flee the country
      -The nationalists were not united creating tension among themselves thus rendering their struggle less effective.

    1. State three functions of the Assembly of the League of Nations. (3 marks)

      -It controlled the budget of the organization
      -Admission of new members to the organization
      -Consideration of treaties
      -Supervision of the League of Nations Council
      -Appointment of non-permanent members to the Leagues Council
      -Amendment of the Covenant of the League
      -Giving approval to the appointment of the Secretary General

    2. Describe six achievements of the League of Nations. (12 marks)

      -It provided health services through the establishment of International Health Organization.
      -It championed for the welfare of workers through the establishment of International Labour Organization.
      -It assisted the refugees through the Refugee Commission.
      -It settled disputes between different European countries e.g. between Turkey and Iraq over Mosul area, Sweden and Finland over Aaland Islands, as well as Germany and Poland over Upper Silesia.
      -It supervised the mandated territories through the Mandates Commission.
      -It organized disarmament conferences in Europe.
      -It controlled the trafficking of dangerous drugs and trade in children and women.
      -It helped in economic reconstruction of European countries like Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria using money raised from member states of the League.
      -It supervised the repatriation of many prisoners of war from 26 nations.
      -The committee on intellectual co-operation helped states to promote education and the spread of ideas concerning peace.
      -It drew up conventions regarding transportation in international roads, rivers and seas.


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