History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Form 3 End Term 1 Exams 2022

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SECTION A (25 MARKS)
Answer all questions in this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. Give the earliest form of art by early man. (1mk)
  2. State two examples of Old wan tools. (2mks)
  3. Identify two advantages of the land enclosure system in Britain during the Agrarian revolution. (2mks)
  4. Give one result of the invention of the wheel in Mesopotamia. (1mk)
  5. State two disadvantages of animal transport. (2mks)
  6. Identify two trade goods that originated from Western Sudan during the Trans-Saharan trade. (2mks)
  7. Identify two scientific inventions which contributed to food preservation in the 18th century. (2mks)
  8. List two factors that led to the expansion of Mwene Mutapa Kingdom. (2mks)
  9. Give the importance of the golden stool in the Asante Empire. (1mk)
  10. Name one leader who led to the Maji Maji rebellion against the Germans. (1mk)
  11. Name one treaty that was signed between the Ndebele and Europeans. (1mk)
  12. Give two functions of the Emirs in Northern Nigeria during the colonial administration. (2mks)
  13. Identify two uses of copper in Africa during the 19th century. (2mks)
  14. Give one negative impact of internet today. (1mks)
  15. Name the leader of the British South African Company (BSACO.) in the 19th century. (1mk)
  16. Identify one method of colonial administration used by the French in Africa (1mks)
  17. State one reasons why early people domesticated crops and animals during the Neo-lithic period. (1mks) 

SECTION: B
Answer three questions in this section.(45 marks)

  1.    
    1. Give five changes marking the Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (5marks)
    2. Explain the effects of the Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (10marks)
  2.        
    1. Give three factors that led to development of urban centers in Africa during the pre-colonial period. (3marks)
    2. Explain six consequences of urbanization in Europe during the 19th century (12mks)
  3.      
    1. Give three reasons why the Ndebele were defeated by the British in 1893 – 1894 (3mks)
    2. briefly describe the results of the Anglo-Ndebele war (Chimurenga) in 1893-1894. (12mks)
  4.      
    1. Give three communities that were involved in the Maji Maii Rebellion. (3 marks)
    2. What reasons led to the failure of the Maji Maji Rebellion in 1907 (12 marks)

SECTION C
Answer three questions in this section.(30 marks)

  1.      
    1. State three economic effects of partition of Africa. (Marks)
    2. Explain six causes of Lewanika’s collaboration with the British in the 19th century. (12 marks)
  2.      
    1. State five economic activities of the Shona in the 19th century. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Buganda kingdom in the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)
  3.      
    1. Give five reasons why the British used Direct Rule in Zimbabwe. (5mks)
    2. Explain five reasons why Samori Toure resisted the French for so long. (10 mks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1. One limitation of relying on oral traditions as a source of History. (1 marks)
    • Information may be exaggerated.
    • Information may be omitted.
    • Difficult to give correct dates.
    • Is expensive.
    • It is time consuming
    • Biases may be experienced
  2. Two examples of Oldwan tools.
    Cleaver, hand axe, spear head. (2mks)
  3. Two advantages of the land enclosure system in Britain during the Agrarian revolution.
    • It was easy to control animal diseases.
    • It was possible to practice large scale farming
    • Led to high production i.e crops and dairy products. (2mks)
  4. One result of the invention of the wheel in Mesopotamia.
    • Improved agriculture because it was used in shadoof irrigation.
    • Used to make good pots.
    • They improved transport i.e. used in making chariots. 1mk)
  5. Two disadvantages of animal transport
    • It is slow and tedious
    • Pack animals may be attacked by wild animals and disease causing insects such as tse tse flies.
    • Their movement is limited to day only and cannot travel at night.
    • They can only carry small loads.
    • Some pack animals e.g. donkeys are stubborn when tired and heavily loaded.
    • Pack animals use is limited to short distances. (2mks)
  6. Two trade goods that originated from Western Sudan during the Trans-Saharan trade.
    Gold, slaves, kolanuts, feathers, hides and skins, ivory, gum, dyed cloth and pepper. (2mks)
  7. Two scientific inventions which contributed to food preservation in the 18th century.
    • Canning.
    • Refrigeration.
    • Pasteurization. ( 2mks)
  8. Two factors that led to the expansion of Mwene Mutapa kingdom.
    • Availability of minerals.
    • Fertile soil that supported agricultural production.
    • Stable military.
    • Involvement in the long distance trade
    • Good leadership. (2mks)
  9. Give the importance of the golden stool in the Asante empire
    • It was a symbol of unity among the people.
    • It validated the office of Asante hene.
    • It was regarded as sacred. 1mk)
  10. One leader that led the Maji Maji rebellion against the Germans.
    • Kinjeketile Ngwale.
    • Abdalla Mpanda.
    • Ngamea. ( 1mk)
  11. Name one treaty that was signed between the Ndebelle and Europeans
    • Moffat treaty
    • Rudd concession (1mk)
  12. Two functions of Emirs in Northern Nigeria during the colonial administration.
    • Maintaining law and order.
    • Appointing local chiefs.
    • Helped in collection of taxes.
    • Administration of justice.
    • Headed local government units.
    • Recruited labour. (2mks)
  13. Identify two uses of copper in Africa during the 19th century. (2mks)
    • Decoration
    • Making utensils
    • Medium of exchange
    • Storing of wealth
    • Item of trade
  14. Give one negative impact of internet today. (1mks)
    • Addiction
    • Cyber-crime
    • Moral erosion e.g. pornography.
  15. Name the leader of the British South African Company (BSACO.) in the 19th century. (1mk)
    Cecil Rhodes
  16. Identify one method of colonial administration used by the French in Africa (1mks)
    • Assimilation
    • Association
  17. State two reasons why early people domesticated crops and animals during the Neo-lithic period. (2mks)
    • Due to increased human population more food was required.
    • There was competition for food between human beings and animals.
    • Over hunting depleted stocks of animals on which human beings relied on for food.
    • Hunting and gathering was tedious.
    • Calamities such as bush fire/floods destroyed vegetation/drove away animals.
    • Some crops and animals had economic value.
    • Animals were domesticated to provide security.
    • There was a change in climate which caused aridity/weather sometimes hindered gathering and hunting.

SECTION B: Answer three questions in this section.(45 marks)

  1.      
    1. Give five changes marking the Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (5marks)
      • Use of machines
      • Use of fertilizers
      • Breeding of modern livestock
      • Abolition of fallows
      • Crop rotation
      • Fencing and hedging
      • Scientific methods of food preservation
    2. Explain the effects of the Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (10marks)
      • Increased food production leading to population increase
      • Expansion of Agro-based industries in Britain increased trade
      • Need for labour caused slave trade in Africa
      • Development of infrastructure e.g. roads and railways
      • Many inventions to boost farming e.g. mechanical reaper by Cyrus Mac Cornic
      • Migration of British people to over sea countries e.g. America
      • Led to rural-urban migration
  2.      
    1. Give three factors that led to development of urban centres in Africa during the pre-colonial period. (3marks)
      • Existence of trade routes which linked various places lead to the development of towns and major cross roads
      • Administration/royal centres later developed into towns
      • Development of centres of learning later became urban centres
      • Development in agriculture led to availability of food which in turn encouraged people to establish permanent settlements
      • Religious centres developed into towns e.g. Kumasi
      • Places that were secure attracted population and later developed into towns
      • Ports and harbours which were used as calling stations for replenishment developed to urban centres
      • Place were water was available developed with urban centre
      • Trading activities led to the rise of convergent centres which later developed into towns (3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    2. Explain six consequences of urbanization in Europe during the 19th century (12mks)
      • Expansion of trade
      • Promoted social interaction among Europeans nations.
      • Poor health resulting from poor working conditions and inadequate health facilities.
      • Landless peasants migrated to urban centres in search of employment
      • Pollution of environment by untreated industrial waste.
      • Outbreak of epidemics such as cholera and typhoid due to poor sanitation.
      • Increased immorality inform of alcoholism, prostitution and crime.
      • Led to improvement of transport and communication.
      • Starvation resulting from inadequate food supply to the large urban population.
      • Strained social facilities/recreational facilities. (6x2=12mrks)
  3.      
    1. Give three reasons why the Ndebele were defeated by the British in 1893 – 1894 (3mks)
      • The British army was well equipped with horses and modern weapons like Machine guns
      • The Ndebele used inferior weapons
      • Ndebele warriors had been weakened by small pox
      • The company forces were well trained and well led. Dr. Lieder Star Jameson was a tough and ruthless commander
      • The British were supported by the Mashona
        The death of Lobengula greatly demoralized the Ndebele warriors who surrendered.
    2. Briefly describe the results of the Anglo-Ndebele war (Chimurenga) in 1893-1894. (12mks)
      • The Ndebele lost their independence to the British
      • The British took away Ndebele cattle as a war fine
      • The British government recognized company rule in Matabeleland
      • The defeat of the Ndebele opened the way for massive land alienation
      • The Ndebele were pushed to the dry and unproductive Gwaai and Shangani reserves
      • The Ndebele were subjected to forced labour and taxation
        The Ndebele system of government was dismantled and the age-set organization broken. Many Indians were killed and those who remained were not recognized (12mks)
  4.    
    1. Give three communities that were involved in the Maji Maii Rebellion. (3 marks)
      • Zaramo,
      • Ngindo
      • Bunga,
      • Ngoni.
      • Bena,
      • Luguru
      • Matumbi,
      • Pogoro
      • Wamwera,
      • Ndendeule. (3 marks)
    2. What reasons led to the failure of the Maji Maji Rebellion in 1907 (12 marks)
      • Lack of proper co-ordination - Africans was not well-organized in their resistance. Each community fought on its own.
      • The magic water failed to protect Africans from the German bullets leading to the death of African soldiers in the battle.
      • The Africans did not unite to face a common enemy. For example the Hehe, and the Nyamwezi did not join the revolt / lack of unity among the Africans.
      • The Germans had superior weapons (guns) while the Africans had spears and arrows /inadequate weapons.
      • The Germans received reinforcements from Germany and their colonies. Their number overwhelmed the African soldiers.
      • Africans did not have a well co-ordained military strategy. They used Guerrilla tactics which were no match to the Germans / Africans did not have a well-trained army / lack of military skills.
      • Ruthlessness of the German soldiers in crushing the rebellion in use of the Scotched Earth policy.
        Capture the execution of the leaders demoralised the warriors. 6 x 2 = 12 marks

SECTION: C Answer three questions in this section.(30 marks)

  1.    
    1. State three economic effects of the partition of Africa.
      • African colonies provided industrial raw materials and markets for European industries
      • African labour was exploited for European economic gains
      • Infrastructure was developed to link major mining and agricultural areas
      • European invaders alienated African lands and Africans were pushed to reserves
      • African economic activities were disrupted especially nomadic pastoralism
      • Africans were introduced to international commerce through trade, financial institutions and the use of currency
      • Wage labour as introduced in Africa 3mks
    2. Explain six causes of Lewanika’s collaboration with the British in the 19th century.
      • He wanted British protection to secure his position in Barotseland
      • He was influenced by a French missionary Francois Coillard who was friendly to the British
      • He wanted British support against powers such as Germans, Portuguese and Boers who were a threat to his empire
      • He wanted to get firearms and other gifts from the British
      • Lewanika recognised the British military superiority while his people were weak
      • He wanted to safeguard the independence of the Lozi by being friendly to the British
      • He was urged by chief Khama of Ngwato in 1885 who had collaborated with the British
      • Lewanika wanted to trade with the British where the Lozi would benefit by acquiring European goods
      • Lewanika wanted his sons to receive Western education and the Lozi to benefit from christian faith, western education and western medicine
      • Lewanika wanted British protection against the Ndebele who were expanding at a fast rate because of being in possession of firearms 12mks
  2.    
    1. State five economic activities of the Shona in the 19th century.
      • They practised iron smelting
      • They practised hunting and gathering
      • Grew crops and kept livestock
      • Practised fishing
      • Mined gold
      • Practised trade
      • Craftmanship e.g. made cloth and carvings 5mks
    2. Describe the political organisation of the Buganda kingdom in the pre-colonial period.
      • The kingdom was highly centralised and headed by the King / Kabaka
      • The Kabaka was assisted in administration by the Katikiro (prime minister), Omwanika (treasurer) and Omulamuzi (chief justice)
      • The Kabaka strengthened his political position by marrying from every clan in the kingdom
      • The kingdom was divided into counties (sazas) led by the saza chiefs
      • The counties were further sub-divided into sub-counties called Gombolola headed by Gombolola chiefs
      • The Gombololas were further divided into smaller divisions called Miluka led by Miluka chief
      • The Kabaka also appointed some leaders to govern the vassal states. These governors were known as the Abatangole
      • The kingdom had a legislative council called ‘the Lukiiko’ made up of clan heads and other officials
      • The Kabaka was the commander-in-chief of the armed forces
      • the Bataka were minor chiefs incharge of clans. They were answerable to the Mugema (the senior chief)
      • The Bataka were the guardians of their clan’s lands
      • the sons of the chiefs and other nobles called bagalagala were recruited to serve the Kabaka. (10mks)
  3.      
    1. Give five reasons why the British used Direct Rule in Zimbabwe. (5mks)
      • The indigenous/local political institutions based on Induna system had been destroyed during British occupation of Zimbabwe.
      • They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe to maximize profit.
      • To ensure complete control of the Africa/to end African resistance.
      • The existence of British South Africa company personnel on the spot which were familiar with the areas.
      • The British South Africa company had enough finance to pay administrative officers.
      • The British had enough personnel to take up all important positions.
      • The Chimurenga appraising 1896-1897 had eroded European confidence in traditional African leadership in the colony. (5mks)
    2. Explain five reasons why Samori Toure resisted the French for so long.(10 mks)
      • He wanted to maintain his independence from the French interference.
      • He wanted to protect his gold fields especially the Bure mines from French exploitation.
      • He wanted to retain his authority as a leader i.e. as Al- Imam, a title he adopted in 1874.
      • He wanted to protect his trade which earned him revenue to purchase arms and ammunitions.
      • He wanted to safeguard Islam form Christian influence/ He was fighting a holy war (Jihad).
      • He had a strong army and weapons thus had confidence in his army.
      • He wanted to preserve Mandinka culture.
      • He was unhappy with French’s activities of selling arms to his enemies like Tiebba of Sikasso.
      • He wanted to protect the Mandinka land from European occupation. (10 marks)

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