History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 3 End Term 2 Exams 2022

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QUESTIONS
SECTION A ( 25 MARKS)

ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION.

  1. Which type of government is practiced in Kenya? Give a reason. (2 marks)
  2. Identify two features in which Kenyan communities interacted in the pre- colonial period. (2 marks)
  3. Name two features of the independent constitution. (2 marks)
  4. List two symbols of national unity in Kenya. (2 marks)
  5. Give two ways in which a Kenyan citizen by registration may lose his or her citizenship. ( 2 marks)
  6. Name two roles of the Mijikenda Council of elders during the pre-colonial period. ( 2 marks)
  7. Give two negative consequences of Portuguese rule at the East African Coast. ( 2 marks)
  8. Name any two national days in Kenya. ( 2 marks)
  9. Identify one method used by the British to occupy Kenya. ( 1 mark)
  10. Name one Kenyan community that displayed mixed reaction in Kenya. ( 1 mark)
  11. Identify one independent church established in colonial Kenya. (1 mark)
  12. Name the newspaper published by the Kikuyu Central Association. ( 1 mark)
  13. Give one challenge faced by Independent schools in Kenya. ( 1 mark)
  14. Which event led to the declaration of the state of emergency in Kenya. ( 1 mark)
  15. Give one factor that led to nationalism in Kenya after 1945. ( 1 mark)
  16. Give one challenge that faced KANU in the struggle for independence. ( 1 mark)
  17. Mention one role played by the Trade union movement in the colonial era. ( 1 mark)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
ANSWER ANY 3 QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

  1.      
    1. State five reasons why the Nilotes moved from the original homeland. ( 5 marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Agikuyu during the pre- colonial era. ( 10 marks)
  2.      
    1. Name five effects of Maasai collaboration. ( 5 marks)
    2. Explain why the Nandi resisted British rule. ( 10 marks)
  3.      
    1. Name three Kenyans who formed AEMO in 1957. ( 3 marks)
    2. Discuss six features of the Constitution of Kenya 2010. ( 12 Marks)
  4.      
    1. Mention five reasons for the construction of the Uganda railway. ( 5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors that promoted settler in Kenya. ( 10 marks)

SECTION C ( 30 MARKS)
ANSWER ANY 2 QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

  1.      
    1. Mention three reasons why Africans were not allowed to grow cash crops in the colonial period. ( 3 marks)
    2. Discuss the effects of urbanization in the colonial era. ( 12 marks)
  2.    
    1. Name three terms of the Devonshire white paper of 1923. ( 3 marks)
    2. Discuss six roles of women in the MAUMAU Rebellion. ( 12 marks)
  3.    
    1. Name three early political associations formed before 1939. (3 marks)
    2. Discuss the features of early political associations. ( 12 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A ( 25 MARKS)
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION.

  1. Which type of government is practiced in Kenya? Give a reason. (2 marks)
    Democratic government- regular elections every five years.
  2. Identify two features in which Kenyan communities interacted in the pre- colonial period. (2 marks)
    • Wars
    • Intermarriages
    • Trading
  3. Name two features of the independent constitution. (2 marks)
    • Judiciary
    • Executive
    • Legislature
    • Bill of rights
    • majimboisim
  4. List two symbols of national unity in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Coat of arms
    • Public seal
    • National flag
    • National language
  5. Give two ways in which a Kenyan citizen by registration may lose his or her citizenship. ( 2 marks)
    • If a person acquired citizenship by fraud, false representation or concealment of any material fact.
    • If the person has, during any war in which Kenya was engaged, unlawfully traded or
    • communicated with an enemy or been engaged in or associated with any business that was knowingly carried on in such a manner as to assist an enemy in that war.
    • If the person has, within five years after registration, been convicted of an offence and sentenced to imprisonment for a term of three years or longer.
  6. Name two roles of the Mijikenda Council of elders during the pre-colonial period. ( 2 marks)
    • These council of elders act as custodians of the Kayas and the cultural expressions.
    • Solving disputes.
    • Blessing the youth.
    • Offering sacrifices
  7. Give two negative consequences of Portuguese rule at the East African Coast. ( 2 marks)
    • Trade declined due to the constant wars and rebellions and heavy taxes imposed.
    • There was decline of the coastal towns because many were burnt down and left in ruins for example Kilwa and Mombasa.
    • There was widespread poverty and misery among the coastal people due to decline in trade. There was heavy loss of lives during the attacks. There was depopulation due to the many wars in the areas
    • There was destruction of property like buildings and crops, which led to famine and starvation.
    • The coastal people suffered oppression and brutality under harsh rule of the Portuguese.
    • Their religion, Christianity, made no impact at the coast because they lived far from their subjects and stagnation of the Islamic faith because discouraged preaching.
    • Smuggling developed because the Portuguese had failed to establish proper trading links with the Interior.
    • Some towns were prevented from trading with their initial partners which led to their decay e.g. Gedi
  8. Name any two national days in Kenya. ( 2 marks)
    • Jamuhuri Day – 12TH DECEMBER
    • MADARAKA DAY – 01ST JUNE
    • MASHUJAA DAY – 20TH OCTOBER
  9. Identify one method used by the British to occupy Kenya. ( 1 mark)
    • Signing of treaties.
    • Collaboration.
    • Establishing operational bases.
    • Use of company Rule.
  10. Name one Kenyan community that displayed mixed reaction in Kenya. ( 1 mark)
    • Kikuyu community
    • Luo community
    • Akamba community
  11. Identify one independent church established in colonial Kenya. (1 mark)
    • Nomiya luo
    • Dini ya roho
    • Joroho
    • Dini ya msambwa
  12. Name the newspaper published by the Kikuyu Central Association. ( 1 mark)
    Muiguithania ( Reconciler)
  13. Give one challenge faced by Independent schools in Kenya. ( 1 mark)
    • Poor leadership as many churches and schools were led by people without any management experience. Many of them lacked trained personnel who could run them efficiently.
    • They faced a lot of hostility from the colonial government and missionaries who constantly harassed them.
    • The schools were forced to follow the official syllabus and become members of the District Education board.
  14. Which event led to the declaration of the state of emergency in Kenya. ( 1 mark)
    The assassination of Senior chief Waruhiu By the MAUMAU
  15. Give one factor that led to nationalism in Kenya after 1945. ( 1 mark)
    • The Acquisition of western education by many Africans by 1945 which enabled them to articulate their grievances more forcefully and to understand political developments outside Kenya.
    • The return of the ex-servicemen after the second world war which exposed the myth of the white supremacy making Africans ready to fight them. Moreover, the colonial government failed to reward African ex-soldiers to embitter them more.
    • The change of government from Conservative to Labour Party in Britain in 1946 stimulated a new attitude in Britain towards decolonization. Africans in Kenya took advantage of this attitude.
    • The granting of independence to India and Pakistan in 1947 aroused great confidence among Africans in Kenya to also clamour for their own independence.
    • The rise of Pan-Africanism in Africa after the 1945 Manchester conference contributed to the new demands for political independence in Kenya.
    • The formation of the UNO and the pressure it exerted on the European powers to decolonize helped the Kenyans in their course.
    • The emergence of United States and the Soviet Union as super powers in the world contributed to the decolonization process. USA was keen to see Britain and France grant independence to their subjects in the world in order to secure new markets.
    • The signing of the Atlantic Charter in 1941 by Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt which demanded that when the WWII ended, all subject peoples should enjoy the right to self-determination.
    • The costs incurred by the European nations during WW2 made their taxpayers become reluctant to raise any more funds for colonial expenditures.
  16. Give one challenge that faced KANU in the struggle for independence. ( 1 mark)
    • There was disunity among its members with some suspicious of the big communities who had taken up key leadership positions
    • The party faced the problem of lacking adequate funds to carry out its countrywide campaigns for Independence.
    • The KANU leaders suffered from ideological differences with some opposing the unitary system of government as advocated by the party’s constitution.
    • Some members were dissatisfied with the way party affairs were being run especially the elections which they felt were not fair.
  17. Mention one role played by the Trade union movement in the colonial era. ( 1 mark)
    • Trade Unions mobilized workers to strike against colonial government.
    • They Motivated workers to sustain the struggle for their political rights/self-governance
    • They provided national political parties with funds required for their operation.
    • Trade union leaders became prominent leaders of political associations that fought for independence.
    • They introduced the concept of collective bargaining for workers in Kenya.
    • The unions promoted regional cooperation in East Africa.
    • They improved working conditions of the Africans through their welfare duties.
    • They intensified the spirit of nationalism after ban on political parties.

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
ANSWER ANY 3 QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

  1.      
    1. State five reasons why the Nilotes moved from the original homeland. ( 5 marks)
      • Searching for fresh pasture and water for their animals
      • Affliction from human and animal diseases
      • Internal feuds
      • External pressure
      • Increase in population
      • Drought and famine
      • Spirit of adventure.
    2. Describe the social organization of the Agikuyu during the pre- colonial era. ( 10 marks)
      • The family was an important social unit. Several related families formed a clan.
      • The agikuyu practiced both male and female circumcision. After circumcision, the initiates formed the age set (riika). The initiates were educated on the values and customs of the society. After initiation one was allowed to marry. Marriage was for societal continuity.
      • The Agikuyu believed in the existence of one God called Ngai. He was believed to dwell on Mt. Kirinyaga (Kenya).They believed in ancestral spirits whom they honoured by pouring libations for at the end of a meal.
      • They had sacred places for worship e.g. the Mugumo tree where they offered sacrifices. The diviners interpreted Gods message to people and foretold the future.
      • They also had medicine men called Mundu Mugo (singular) whose work was to cure diseases. They learnt their skills through apprenticeship.
  2.    
    1. Name five effects of Maasai collaboration. ( 5 marks)
      • Lenana was made a paramount chief of the Maasai in 1901.
      • The collaboration led to the separation of the Maasai related clans. The Purko Maasai were divided into the Loita and Ngong Maasai.
      • There was massive land alienation with the Maasai being moved to the Ngong and Laikipia reserves and later the southern reserve.
      • Maasai freedom in conducting rituals was curtailed with their confinement to a five – square-mile reserve for initiation rites.
      • The Maasai lost their independence. Just like any other part of kenya, Maasailand became part of the British protectorate.
      • There was total disruption of their territorial integrity. Even their cattle economy was disrupted as the number of livestock was reduced. There was an attempt to cause them to abandon their nomadic habit.
      • The Maasai gained material reward in form of cattle and grains looted from resisting communities like the Nandi and Luo of Ugenya.
      • Their age old custom of livestock cross- breeding with their Samburu neighbours was disrupted with the curtailing of their migratory behaviour. Their stock was therefore weakened.
      • Some Maasai were hired as mercenaries against the resisting communities such as the Nandi and Agikuyu.
    2. Explain why the Nandi resisted British rule. ( 10 marks)
      • The Nandi had gained a lot of pride, having subdued their neighbours E.g the Luo, Maasai, Abagusii and Abaluhyia. At that time, they were enjoying a sense of superiority that gave them confidence to take the British Intruders head-on.
      • The Nandi military superiority made them feel equal if not superior to the whites. Their warriors were well- trained and equipped and had gained a lot of experience through the numerous cattle raids the conducted against their neighbours.
      • The Nandi detested the physical appearance of the white people which they considered as evil and must be expelled from their community.
      • The Nandi were opposed to Land alienation by the British. They disliked the grabbing of their land for railway construction/white settlement.
      • Kimnyole’s prophecy that foreigners would dominate the Nandi motivated them to fight against the Europeans.
      • The Nandi had a long history of resisting and fighting intruders. They had successfully warded off the Arab and Swahili traders in the 1850s.
      • The Nandi resisted as a means of safeguarding their independence which they had enjoyed for a long time.
      • The Nandi also enjoyed unity under the leadership of Koitalel Arap Samoei between 1895 and 1905. This had helped them to register numerous victories against neighbouring communities. They therefore felt strong enough to resist the British.
  3.    
    1. Name three Kenyans who formed AEMO in 1957. ( 3 marks)
      • Tom Mboya(Nairobi)
      • Masinde Muliro( Northern Nyanza)
      • Oginga Odinga(Central Nyanza)
      • Lawrence Ogunda(south Nyanza)
      • Ronald Ngala( Coast )
      • Daniel Arap Moi( Rift Valley)
      • James Miumi(Ukambani)
      • Bernard Mate (central)
    2. Discuss six features of the Constitution of Kenya 2010. ( 12 Marks)
      Sovereignty of the people and supremacy of the Constitution. All sovereign power belongs to the people of Kenya and the power shall be exercised only according to the constitution.
      The republic- Kenya is a sovereign republic. It is a multiparty democratic state founded on national values and principles of governance.
      Citizenship. One can become a citizen by birth or registration. Dual citizenship is allowed Citizens are entitled to a Kenyan passport and any document of registration or identification
      The Bill of Rights The constitution recognizes 26 rights and freedoms that must be respected, observed, and promoted by the stateIt also recognizes the rights and freedoms of children and marginalized groups.
      Land and Environment. All land in Kenya belongs to the people of Kenya collectively as a nation, communities and as individuals.Land shall be held, used and managed in an equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable manner.
      Leadership and Integrity- People holding public positions should use their power to serve Kenyans
      Representation of the People- Citizens have freedom to exercise their political rights
      A third of public position should be held by women. Disabled people shall be represented.
      The Legislature- The legislature is bicameral (National Assembly and The Senate) and is the law making body in Kenya.
      The Executive- The National executive comprises the President, Deputy President and the Cabinet. Its composition must reflect ethnic diversity.
      The Judiciary-The judiciary has a task of interpretation of the law and administering justice.
      Devolved Government- Kenya is divided into counties which are interdependent. The county has a government consisting of County assembly and county executive (led by governor)
      Public Finance- Constitution provides for a Consolidated Fund where all money is received. Equalization Fund is also established in which one half of all revenue collected by national government each year is paid. The money is used for provision of basic services for marginalized areas.
      The Public Service-There has to be high standards of professional ethics, efficient, effective and economic use of resources
      National Security-The National Security Council shall supervise Kenya Defence Force, National Intelligence Service and National Police Service.
      Commissions and Independent Offices. The constitution established 10 commissions including Parliamentary Service Commission, National Land Commission, independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission, Teachers Service Commission, national Police Service Commission, Salaries and Remuneration Commission, judicial Service Commission etc.
  4.    
    1. Mention five reasons for the construction of the Uganda railway. ( 5 marks)
      • To promote trade with the outside world by encouraging the exploitation of available resources and enable the colony sustain itself
      • To link Uganda with the Coast so that the British can achieve their strategic interests.
      • To enable missionaries to go the interior to spread Christianity.
      • To help stop slave trade since slaves would no longer be needed to ferry goods to and from the coast.
      • To provide quick, safe and convenient means of transport for government administrators/troops
      • Open up Kenya for economic development/to stop slave trade/promote legitimate trade
      • To maintain law and order so that economic development could be achieved.
      • To make Africans more productive and able to generate revenue in form of tax to the colonial government. To activate interior trade. To enable transportation of imported goods to the interior of the colony.
    2. Explain five factors that promoted settler in Kenya. ( 10 marks)
      • The land policies availed cheap African labour to settler farmers. The alienation of African land and Creation of African reserves forced Africans to work in the settler farms.
      • Africans in Kenya were not allowed to grow some cash crops in order to enable Europeans continue getting cheap African labour for their farms.
      • The government built and maintained various forms of transport. For example the railway, Bridges and roads which facilitated faster movement of produce and inputs.
      • The government Reduced freight charges in the importation and exportation of agricultural inputs and products.
      • The government encouraged formation of cooperatives to help in the processing and marketing of produce.
      • The establishment of financial institutions such as Agricultural Finance Corporation and Banks provided the settlers with credit facilities.
      • The government availed extension services for crops and animal farming through the establishment of the Department of Agriculture and research stations to improve the quality of crops and animals.
      • Trade tariffs were also removed and settlers were granted concessions.

SECTION C ( 30 MARKS)
ANSWER ANY 2 QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

  1.      
    1. Mention three reasons why Africans were not allowed to grow cash crops in the colonial period. ( 3 marks)
      • Europeans wanted to continue getting cheap African labour for their farms. This could not be available if Africans were allowed to earn some money through growing of coffee.
      • European settlers did not want to compete with Africans in coffee growing. They feared that it would limit market for their produce.
      • The settlers claimed that Africans did not have knowledge of growing Cash crops. They claimed that African participation in cash crop growing would lead to low quality products.
      • They feared that diseases would spread from African farms to settler plantations.
      • European settlers claimed that African farmers would produce low quality coffee due to inadequate resources.
    2. Discuss the effects of urbanization in the colonial era. ( 12 marks)
      • It promoted interaction between people of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds, who exchanged ideas and experiences. The centres became seedbeds of political activities that eventually culminated into the struggle for independence.
      • Urbanization promoted national integration and instilled a sense of nationhood among Kenyans as it watered down the differences and prejudices between communities.
      • The welfare associations formed by Africans in urban areas, like the Bara Association in Mombasa for all hinterland people, united them for a common cause by lessening ethnic hostilities.
      • Through sporting and cultural activities that took place in towns, relationships between different ethnic groups and races were cemented.
      • Many Africans benefitted from the numerous employment opportunities as shoe shiners and repairers, charcoal sellers, hawking in industries and in European homes.
      • Due to the Abundance of labour and raw materials, industries in urban areas expanded further.
      • There were inadequate housing facilities to meet the demands of the people. This led to overcrowding especially in slums/shanties led to the outbreak of diseases. Lack of planning of housing led to poor drainage and sanitation facilities.
      • Africans in urban areas were subjected to racial discrimination. The social services provided to the Africans were inadequate and of poor quality. Even houses in towns were occupied according to the various racial groups, with Europeans enjoying the best facilities.
      • Increased population in urban centres led to serious water shortages.
      • Establishment of industries in urban centres led to pollution of the environment, which affected the health of the inhabitants.
      • There was rampant unemployment as urban centres could not cope with the large influx of labourers and increased competition for the available jobs
      • Many unemployed people in urban areas got involved in social vices / crimes such as drug abuse, alcoholism and promiscuity, due to desperation and poverty.
      • Africans working in urban centres received low wages with employers taking advantage of the high supply of labour, which affected their standards of living.
      • The mass rural-urban migration brought about intensification of migration regulations to control the numbers of African migrants. The Kipande system became stricter.
      • Economic activities in the rural areas were disrupted by the absence of men who had moved to urban areas. Women took up men’s roles.
  2.    
    1. Name three terms of the Devonshire white paper of 1923. ( 3 marks)
      • White highlands were reserved for European settlement only
      • Indians would be allowed to elect five members to LEGCO not on a common roll, but on a communal roll.
      • Racial segregation was abolished in all residential areas.
      • Restriction on Indian immigration was lifted
      • A nominated missionary was to represent African interests in the LEGCO.
      • The European Settlers’ demand for self government in Kenya was rejected.
      • African interests were declared paramount before those of immigrant races if there was a conflict.
      • The settlers were to maintain their representation in the LEGCO.
      • The Colonial Secretary was given mandate to exercise strict control over the affairs of the colony.
    2. Discuss six roles of women in the MAUMAU Rebellion. ( 12 marks)
      • Some women were fully-fledged warriors fighting alongside men. 'Field Marshall' Muthoni went to fight alongside famous warriors of the forest like Dedan Kimathi Waciuri.
      • The women in the camps made sure that the family continued intact through all of the while their men were out fighting. They would weed and grow food for family use.
      • While men were in the forests, Mau Mau women continued to educate their children to be the future leaders of their government. Women would collect money and smuggle the brightest children out of Kenya to study overseas through Sudan, Ethiopia and Egypt.
      • Many women sought support for Mau Mau internationally. E.g, Mama Sarah Sarai, an ally of Kenyatta’s, when out of the country would get people to write in support of Mau Mau.
      • Some women offered their property for use by mau mau. In Nairobi, Mama Josephine Muthoni offered her cars to be used for Mau Mau activities. Mama Elizabeth Waruiru’s house in Pangani which became a Mau Mau meeting place.
      • Women were first class spies and informers. They supplied information to the forest forces.
      • Women supplied guns, would do anything to get them. Sometimes they killed for them.
      • Women had primary responsibility for the organization and maintenance of the supply lines. Operating from villages, thousands of women acted as go-betweens and carriers of food and firearms, and generally provided a system of intelligence.
      • Women composed songs like the Kanyegenuri, to commemorate their deeds, like the bravery of Mary Nyanjiru. Years later the song became the Mau Mau anthem of resistance
      • They also recruited for Mau Mau fighters.
      • They officiated at and participated in oathing ceremonies. Some like Waithera allowed themselves to be subjected to unnatural sexual acts for the sake of the movement.
      • In forest camps, women would serve male leaders as Kabatuni (a small platoon to be commanded by the man), doing minor military duties like cleaning guns as well as seeing to the other needs like meeting his sexual needs.
      • Some women were co-opted in the political Arena in the mau mau duo-sex councils. For example Muthoni Ngatha - even rose to the senior position of Field Marshal. In June 1953 Wagiri Njoroge was crowned as the Queen of Mau Mau and ruled for 7 months.
      • Women also contributed the services of their children who served as errand boys and girls and informers.
      • Women were allowed to flirt with "enemies" to gather vital information, weapons and other resources. For example, in Gakenia's village in Nanyuki, four girls lured four loyalist African soldiers to Kaarage Forest where the soldiers were killed and their rifles taken.
      • Some women like Wanjiru were appointed judges in Nakuru's Mau Mau Courts which passed sentences on anti-Mau Mau crimes. These illustrated by the emergence of a small number of women who acted as executioners.
  3.      
    1. Name three early political associations formed before 1939. (3 marks)
      • Kikuyu Central Association
      • Kikuyu Association
      • Young Kikuyu Association
      • Young Kavirondo Association
      • East African Association
    2. Discuss the features of early political associations. ( 12 marks)
      • They lacked a national outlook since they were ethnic (tribal based/oriented/urban based). Most of them were confined to one or two ethnic communities except EAA.
      • Most of them received material and moral support from the Asians
      • Mission-Educated African young men led them. For example, Harry Thuku, Okwiri and Mwambichi.
      • They were formed in response to socio-economic and land problems of various ethnic groups.
      • They all agitated for an end to European exploitation and oppression rather than demand for political independence.
      • Most of them did not attract large membership due to their ethnic tendency.
      • They were non-militant and tended to be moderate and their demanded.
      • They were characterized by squabbles over leadership.

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