History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Mock Examinations 2022

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Answer all questions in this section

  1. Identify the branch of history that deals with occupation of people 1mk
  2. Identify two earliest inhabitants in Western Kenya 2mks
  3. Give the name of the clan council of elders among the Nandi 1mk
  4. Give two functions of mission centers established by missionaries 2mks
  5. State one right that is limited for a person held in custody in Kenya 1mk
  6. Identify one symbol of national unity 1mk
  7. Give one importance of repeal of section 2A of the constitution 1mk
  8. State two survival right of a child in Kenya 2mks
  9. Name the leader of Imperial British East Africa Company in 1888 1mk
  10. Name two groups of Luo communities that collaborated with the British 2mks
  11. Identify the main reason why Africans were pushed into the reserves 1mk
  12. State two affiliate trade unions of the Kenya Federation of Registered Trade Union (KFRTU) 2mks
  13. Identify the opposition party formed by Oginga Odinga in 1966 1mk
  14. Give two classifications of bills in law making 2mks
  15. State the sources of Nyayo philosophy 2mks
  16. State two roles of art and theatre in Kenya 2mks
  17. Give one type of expenditure for national government 1mk

Section B (45marks)
Answer any three questions

    1. Outline the results of the Plain Nilotes migration to Kenya 5mks
    2. Describe the social organization of the Akamba 10mks
    1. State five measures used by the colonial government to provide labour in settler farms 5mks
    2. Explain the results of the Nandi resistance 10mks
    1. Give five reasons why Africans moved to urban centres in colonial Kenya 5mks
    2. Explain the role of women in the Mau Mau movement 10mks
    1. Give five principles of African Socialism 5mks
    2. Explain five functions of the National Land Commission 10mks

Section C (30mks)
Answer any two questions

    1. State three circumstances under which one can lose citizenship by birth 3mks
    2. Identify six social and economic issues that cause conflict 12mks.
    1. Give three groups that monitor human rights in Kenya 3mks
    2. Describe the constitution making process 12mks
    1. Identify three Principles of the electoral process in Kenya 3mks
    2. Explain challenges facing the county governments 12mks


  1. Economic history
  2. Onguye
  3. Kokwet
  4. They were used to teach Africans western education- reading, writing, arithmetic
    They were used as centers of spreading Christianity
    They were used to provide health services for Africans
    They were used as centers for freed slaves
    They were used as operational bases for missionaries
  5. The right to freedom of movement and residence
    Right to freedom of association
    Right to labour relations
    Right to assembly, demonstration, picketing and petition
    Entitled to petition for the order of habeas corpus- not to be held more than is required by law
  6. The national flag
    The national anthem
    The coat of arms
    The public seal
  7. Led to the re-introduction of multi-party democracy in Kenya
  8. A name / identity
    Nationality from birth
    Basic nutrition/ food
    Health care
  9. Sir William Mackinnon
  10. The Luo of Gem
    The Luo of Asembo
  11. To create land for settler farming
  12. Kenya Local Government Workers’ Union
    Domestic and Hotel Workers’ Union
    East African Federation of Building and Construction Workers’ Union
  13. Kenya People’s Union (KPU)
  14. Public bills
    Private bills
  15. Sessional paper No.10 of 1965 – African socialism
    The Biblical teachings of the Ten Commandments
    Moi’s long political career
  16. It educates people on different aspects of life- drunkenness
    It provides entertainment
    It reflects on the country’s political developments
    It has created employment
    It helps unite Kenyans
  17. Capital expenditure
    Recurrent expenditure
    1. They pushed and displaced the communities they came across
      They absorbed the Southern Cushites e.g the Dorobo
      They adopted some cultural practices from the Southern Cushites e.g age set system, circumcision
      A section of Maasai – the Iloikop adopted farming from their neighbors
      They traded with their neighbouring communities i.e Akamba and Agikuyu
      They intermarried with their neighbours
      The Maasai influenced the fighting tactics of other groups in Kenya.
      Some communities borrowed their political institutions e.g the oloibon
    2. The Akamba basic social unit was the family lived in a homestead - musyi
      The Akamba were organized into clans each claiming a common ancestry
      Practised polygamy
      They practiced exogamy
      Boys and girls were initiated at puberty then taught secrets of the community
      Believed in a creator –Mulungu
      Worshipped through ancestral spirits -poured libations
      Had specialists like medicine people, elders
      Had shrines for offering sacrifices
      Had many social ceremonies and games e.g gambling
    1. Land alienation from Africans- creation of reserves
      Squatter system on settler farms
      Kipande system-
      Heavy taxation on Africans
      Ban on growing of cash crops for Africans
      Confiscation of livestock
      Forced recruitment
      Master servant ordinance- an offence to evade duty
      Low wages
    2. Eventually defeated and colonized by the British
      Massive loss of life- over 1,000 warriors and Koitalel Arap Samoei
      Massive destruction of property
      Land alienation for settlers
      Disintegration of Nandi military organization after killing of Koitalel Arap Samoei demoralised them.
      Disruption of Nandi economy due to alienation and reserves created.
      Nandi became squatters on settler farms
      Many Nandi warriors recruited into the colonial police
    1. Land alienation had pushed Africans into reserves- thus poor livelihoods
      Job prospects in towns with better wages
      Recreational facilities and other social amenities attracted Africans
      To escape forced labour and taxation
      African entrepreneurs wanted to take advantage of the wider market in towns
      Better infrastructure – tarmacked roads
      Widespread poverty in the rural areas
      Master servant ordinance- an offence to evade duty
    2. The women actively participated in the war- Marshal Muthoni, Nduta wa Kore, Elizabeth Gachika, Wambui Wagarama.
      They composed songs to mobilize support and others to redicule those who did not join Mau Mau
      Mobilize men and women to join the movement
      They supplied fighters with provisions i.e food, medicine and guns
      They acted as spies for Mau Mau
      They participated in oathing ceremonies.
      They refused to betray the fighters therefore subjected to forced labour, rape and physical torture
      They endured dawn to dusk curfews and starvation
      They attended to wounded warriors
    1. Political democracy – all people free and equal
      Mutual social responsibility – service and not greed for personal gain
      Various forms ownership – free enterprise, nationalization, partnership
      Diffusion of ownership- avoid economic power on few
      Equity- resources used for mutual interest of society
      Progressive taxation- to ensure equitable distribution of wealth.
    2. To recommend a national land policy to the national government
      To manage public land on behalf of the national and county governments.
      To conduct research on land use in the country, including use of natural resources
      To investigate present and past historical injustices by their own or from complaints and recommend appropriate action.
      To encourage the use of traditional methods of dispute resolution in land conflicts
      To assess tax on land & premiums on immovable property in any area designate by law
      To advise the national government on a comprehensive programme for land registration throughout the country
    1. If proven citizenship was acquired through fraud or false representation
      If it is discovered that the person was older than eight years when found in Kenya
      If the nationality or parentage of a person becomes known and reveals that the person was a citizen of another country
    2. Dispute between employer and employee –over underpayment
      Family dispute over land and inheritance
      Clan disputes over resources – water, pasture, forests
      Disputes between landlords and tenants over rent
      Marriage disputes
      Trade disputes
      Religious disputes
      Drug use and abuse
    1. Law enforcement officers
      Lawyers, judges and teachers
      Trade unions
      Religious organisations
      Asssociations- business association, women groups
      Special commissions- KNHREC
      International organisations – e.g Amnesty international, ICC
    2. Civic education
      Debate over contentious issues
      Collection of public views
      Convening of constitutional conferences
      Drafting of the constitution
      Enacting the constitution
      Promulgation of the constitution
    1. Freedom of citizens to exercise their political rights
      More than two thirds of elective public bodies must not be of the same gender
      Fair representation of persons with disabilities
      Universal suffrage based on aspirations for fair representation and equality of vote
      Free and fair elections –by secret ballot, absence of violence, conducted by independent body, transparency, impartial and accurate.
    2. High population growth stretches the available resources
      Underdeveloped transport and communication network
      Inadequate resources to provide them with a solid revenue base
      Interference in their working by the National Government
      Rivalry and wrangling among the leaders in the county
      Inadequate skilled personnel to man departments within the county
      Embezzlement of devolved funds
      Delay in remittances of funds to the county
      Natural calamities i.e drought floods
      Ethnicity and nepotism in employment
      Duplication of roles with the national government
      Conflict over common resources i.e water, forest land between counties.
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